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排序方式: 共有15755条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Digital particle image velocimetry   总被引:58,自引:13,他引:45  
Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) is the digital counterpart of conventional laser speckle velocitmetry (LSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In this novel, two-dimensional technique, digitally recorded video images are analyzed computationally, removing both the photographic and opto-mechanical processing steps inherent to PIV and LSV. The directional ambiguity generally associated with PIV and LSV is resolved by implementing local spatial cross-correlations between two sequential single-exposed particle images. The images are recorded at video rate (30 Hz or slower) which currently limits the application of the technique to low speed flows until digital, high resolution video systems with higher framing rates become more economically feasible. Sequential imaging makes it possible to study unsteady phenomena like the temporal evolution of a vortex ring described in this paper. The spatial velocity measurements are compared with data obtained by direct measurement of the separation of individual particle pairs. Recovered velocity data are used to compute the spatial and temporal vorticity distribution and the circulation of the vortex ring.  相似文献
2.
We present pulse shaping techniques to obtain compressive stress-strain data for brittle materials with the split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus. The conventional split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus is modified by shaping the incident pulse such that the samples are in dynamic stress equilibrium and have nearly constant strain rate over most of the test duration. A thin disk of annealed or hard C11000 copper is placed on the impact surface of the incident bar in order to shape the incident pulse. After impact by the striker bar, the copper disk deforms plastically and spreads the pulse in the incident bar. We present an analytical model and data that show a wide variety of incident strain pulses can be produced by varying the geometry of the copper disks and the length and striking velocity of the striker bar. Model predictions are in good agreement with measurements. In addition, we present data for a machineable glass ceramic material, Macor, that shows pulse shaping is required to obtain dynamic stress equilibrium and a nearly constant strain rate over most of the test duration.  相似文献
3.
Blow-up at the boundary for degenerate semilinear parabolic equations   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
This paper treats a superlinear parabolic equation, degenerate in the time derivative. It is shown that the solution may blow up in finite time. Moreover, it is proved that for a large class of initial data, blow-up occurs at the boundary of the domain when the nonlinearity is no worse than quadratic. Various estimates are obtained which determine the asymptotic behaviour near the blow-up. The mathematical analysis is then extended to equations with other degeneracies.  相似文献
4.
 This paper describes how the accuracy for estimating the location of the displacement-correlation peak in (digital) particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be optimized by the use of a window offset equal to the integer-pixel displacement. The method works for both cross-correlation analysis of single-exposure image pairs and multiple-exposure images. The effect is predicted by an analytical model for the statistical properties of estimators for the displacement, and it is observed in the analysis of synthetic PIV images of isotropic turbulence, and in actual measurements of grid-generated turbulence and of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. Received: 29 April 1996/Accepted: 29 October 1996  相似文献
5.
6.
Computational Mechanics of the Heart   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
Finite elasticity theory combined with finite element analysis provides the framework for analysing ventricular mechanics during the filling phase of the cardiac cycle, when cardiac cells are not actively contracting. The orthotropic properties of the passive tissue are described here by a “pole–zero” constitutive law, whose parameters are derived in part from a model of the underlying distributions of collagen fibres. These distributions are based on our observations of the fibrous-sheet laminar architecture of myocardial tissue. We illustrate the use of high order (cubic Hermite) basis functions in solving the Galerkin finite element stress equilibrium equations based on this orthotropic constitutive law and for incorporating the observed regional distributions of fibre and sheet orientations. Pressure–volume relations and 3D principal strains predicted by the model are compared with experimental observations. A model of active tissue properties, based on isolated muscle experiments, is also introduced in order to predict transmural distributions of 3D principal strains at the end of the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. We end by offering a critique of the current model of ventricular mechanics and propose new challenges for future modellers. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
7.
Restoration of the contact surface in the HLL-Riemann solver   总被引:19,自引:3,他引:16  
The missing contact surface in the approximate Riemann solver of Harten, Lax, and van Leer is restored. This is achieved following the same principles as in the original solver. We also present new ways of obtaining wave-speed estimates. The resulting solver is as accurate and robust as the exact Riemann solver, but it is simpler and computationally more efficient than the latter, particulaly for non-ideal gases. The improved Riemann solver is implemented in the second-order WAF method and tested for one-dimensional problems with exact solutions and for a two-dimensional problem with experimental results.This article was processed using Springer-Verlag TEX Shock Waves macro package 1.0 and the AMS fonts, developed by the American Mathematical Society.  相似文献
8.
On the Cahn-Hilliard equation   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
9.
Digital image correlation is finding wider use in the field of mechanics. One area of weakness in the current technique is the lack of available displacement gradient terms. This technique, based on a coarse-fine search method, is capable of calculating the gradients. However the speed at which it does so has prevented widespread use. Presented in this paper is the development and limited experimental verification of a method which can determine displacements and gradients using the Newton-Raphson method of partial corrections. It will be shown that this method is accurate in determining displacements and certain gradients, while using significantly less CPU time than the current coarse-fine search method. Paper was presented at the 1988 SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics held in Portland, OR on June 5–10.  相似文献
10.
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