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Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a promising chemopreventive agent present in cruciferous vegetables. This paper describes the development of a method for the determination of PEITC in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS). Atmospheric‐pressure chemical ionization was found more suitable for ionization of PEITC than electrospray ionization. Because of the lability of PEITC, a combination of low temperature and acidification was applied to minimize the degradation during the sample collection and preparation procedure. A simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used for the preparation of plasma samples. The analyte and 1‐phenylpropyl isothiocyanate as internal standard (IS) were subjected to chromatographic analysis on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 µm) using 85% methanol as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The total analysis time for each chromatograph was 3 min and the results were linear over the studied range (5.00–250 ng/mL). The intra‐ and inter‐day precision values were acceptable as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. This method was successfully applied in the determination of PEITC concentrations in plasma samples from healthy chinese Volunteers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Zhenju antihypertensive compound (ZJAHC) is a combined Chinese–Western medicine formula including clonidine (CLO), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), rutin, Chrysanthemum indicum extract and pearl powder. Compared with CLO preparations, ZJAHC shows improved activities and decreased adverse effects. It is believed that the side effects of CLO are caused by its high peak plasma concentration. Hence, study of the influence of ZJAHC on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of clonidine seems essential. In present study, the plasma concentrations of CLO were determined with a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) method. The MS/MS transitions monitored for clonidine and internal standard were 230.2 → 213.1 and 152.2 → 110.2, respectively. The analyte was quantified in a single run within 3 min. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the area under the plasma concentration–time curve of CLO in ZJAHC (60 µg/kg CLO) was similar to that of CLO‐HCT‐high (120 µg/kg CLO) but the peak concentration was much lower than that in CLO‐HCT‐high. ZJAHC could enhance the bioavailability without greatly increasing peak concentration of clonidine. This comprehensive effect of enhancing the bioavailability and avoiding the high peak plasma concentration for CLO might mainly result from the co‐contribution of Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), while the effect of TCM was stronger than that of Western medicine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Dioscin (DIS), one of the most abundant bioactive steroidal saponins in Dioscorea sp., is used as a complementary medicine to treat coronary disease and angina pectoris in China. Although the pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetics of DIS have been well demonstrated, information regarding the final metabolic fates is very limited. This study investigated the in vivo metabolic profiles of DIS after oral administration by ultra‐performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry method. The structures of the metabolites were identified and tentatively characterized by means of comparing the molecular mass, retention time and fragmentation pattern of the analytes with those of the parent compound. A total of eight metabolites, including seven phase I and one phase II metabolites, were detected and tentatively identified for the first time. Oxidation, deglycosylation and glucuronidation were found to be the major metabolic processes of the compound in rats. In addition, a possible metabolic pathway on the biotransformation of DIS in vivo was proposed. This study provides valuable and new information on the metabolism of DIS, which will be helpful for further understanding its mechanism of action. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information‐dependent acquisition scan for the low‐level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data‐processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Folium Eriobotryae effective fraction (FEA), the extract of Folium Eriobotryae, had been used as anti‐hyperglycemia and anti‐hyperlipemia medicine in China. A previous study indicated that euscaphic acid, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, the five structurally similar triterpene acids (containing two groups of structural isomers), are the major components of FEA. In the present study, we developed a specific and reliable LC‐MS method for simultaneous determination of the five triterpene acids in rat plasma, and further investigated their pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration of FEA. Following a simple sample preparation, chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with a mobile phase composed of methanol–0.1% ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v). Quantification was achieved by monitoring the selected ions at m/z 487.6 for euscaphic acid, m/z 471.5 for maslinic acid and corosolic acid, m/z 455.5 for oleanolic acid and ursolic acid and m/z 469.5 for internal standard. The method was validated to be specific, accurate and precise over the concentration ranges of 10–3000 ng/mL with limits of detections of 5 ng/mL for the five triterpene acids. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the five structurally similar triterpene acids in rats after oral administration of FEA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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