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一门崭新的交叉科学:网络科学(上)   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
本文试图比较系统地概括和评述正在兴起的一门崭新的交叉科学—网络科学,内容涉及网络科学的发展简史,基本概念,网络分类,主要理论模型及其特性,目前国内外该领域的若干重要课题的研究进展概况。全文结构分为:序言,主体部分共12章,最后是结束语,分别概述和涵盖网络科学的主要课题的研究成果和近年的进展,特别是着重介绍和总结了我们"一院二校"(原子能科研院、上海交大和北京师大)国家自然科学基金重点项目联合研究组开展的复杂网络研究所取得的若干成果和进展。分两期发表,下篇请见《物理学进展》27卷4期。  相似文献
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When Silk fibre derived from Bombyx mori, a native biopolymer, was dissolved in highly concentrated neutral salts such as CaCl2, the regenerated liquid silk, a gradually degraded peptide mixture of silk fibroin, could be obtained. The silk fibroin nanoparticles were prepared rapidly from the liquid silk by using water-miscible protonic and polar aprotonic organic solvents. The nanoparticles are insoluble but well dispersed and stable in aqueous solution and are globular particles with a range of 35–125 nm in diameter by means of TEM, SEM, AFM and laser sizer. Over one half of the ɛ-amino groups exist around the protein nanoparticles by using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) method. Raman spectra shows the tyrosine residues on the surface of the globules are more exposed than those on native silk fibers. The crystalline polymorph and conformation transition of the silk nanoparticles from random-coil and α-helix form (Silk I) into anti-parallel β-sheet form (Silk II) are investigated in detail by using infrared, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, DSC, 13C CP-MAS NMR and electron diffraction. X-ray diffraction of the silk nanoparticles shows that the nanoparticles crystallinity is about four fifths of the native fiber. Our results indicate that the degraded peptide chains of the regenerated silk is gathered homogeneously or heterogeneously to form a looser globular structure in aqueous solution. When introduced into excessive organic solvent, the looser globules of the liquid silk are rapidly dispersed and simultaneously dehydrated internally and externally, resulting in the further chain–chain contact, arrangement of those hydrophobic domains inside the globules and final formation of crystalline silk nanoparticles with β-sheet configuration. The morphology and size of the nanoparticles are relative to the kinds, properties and even molecular structures of organic solvents, and more significantly to the looser globular substructure of the degraded silk fibroin in aqueous solution. It is possible that the silk protein nanoparticles are potentially useful in biomaterials such as cosmetics, anti-UV skincare products, industrial materials and surface improving materials, especially in enzyme/drug delivery system as vehicle.  相似文献
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鲁公儒  李祥  李培英 《物理学报》2008,57(2):778-783
在LHC上,最小超对称标准模型中R-宇称破缺相互作用使LHC上tt对的产生有两种过程,一种是交换slepton粒子的t道的dRdRtLtL过程,一种是交换squark粒子的u道的dRdRtRt  相似文献
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在LHC上,最小超对称标准模型中R-宇称破缺相互作用使LHC上tt对的产生有两种过程,一种是交换slepton粒子的t道的dRdRtLtL过程,一种是交换squark粒子的u道的dRdRtRt  相似文献
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