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To simulate flows around solid obstacles of complex geometries, various immersed boundary methods had been developed. Their main advantage is the efficient implementation for stationary or moving solid boundaries of arbitrary complexity on fixed non-body conformal Cartesian grids. The Brinkman penalization method was proposed for incompressible viscous flows by penalizing the momentum equations. Its main idea is to model solid obstacles as porous media with porosity, , and viscous permeability approaching zero. It has the pronounced advantages of mathematical proof of error bound, strong convergence, and ease of numerical implementation with the volume penalization technique. In this paper, it is extended to compressible flows. The straightforward extension of penalizing momentum and energy equations using Brinkman penalization with respective normalized viscous, η, and thermal, ηT, permeabilities produces unsatisfactory results, mostly due to nonphysical wave transmissions into obstacles, resulting in considerable energy and mass losses in reflected waves. The objective of this paper is to extend the Brinkman penalization technique to compressible flows based on a physically sound mathematical model for compressible flows through porous media. In addition to penalizing momentum and energy equations, the continuity equation for porous media is considered inside obstacles. In this model, the penalized porous region acts as a high impedance medium, resulting in negligible wave transmissions. The asymptotic analysis reveals that the proposed Brinkman penalization technique results in the amplitude and phase errors of order O((η)1/2) and O((η/ηT)1/43/4), when the boundary layer within the porous media is respectively resolved or unresolved. The proposed method is tested using 1- and 2-D benchmark problems. The results of direct numerical simulation are in excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. The numerical simulations verify the accuracy and convergence rates.  相似文献
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Prosperetti’s seminal Physalis method, an Immersed Boundary/spectral method, had been used extensively to investigate fluid flows with suspended solid particles. Its underlying idea of creating a cage and using a spectral general analytical solution around a discontinuity in a surrounding field as a computational mechanism to enable the accommodation of physical and geometric discontinuities is a general concept, and can be applied to other problems of importance to physics, mechanics, and chemistry. In this paper we provide a foundation for the application of this approach to the determination of the distribution of electric charge in heterogeneous mixtures of dielectrics and conductors. The proposed Physalis method is remarkably accurate and efficient. In the method, a spectral analytical solution is used to tackle the discontinuity and thus the discontinuous boundary conditions at the interface of two media are satisfied exactly. Owing to the hybrid finite difference and spectral schemes, the method is spectrally accurate if the modes are not sufficiently resolved, while higher than second-order accurate if the modes are sufficiently resolved, for the solved potential field. Because of the features of the analytical solutions, the derivative quantities of importance, such as electric field, charge distribution, and force, have the same order of accuracy as the solved potential field during postprocessing. This is an important advantage of the Physalis method over other numerical methods involving interpolation, differentiation, and integration during postprocessing, which may significantly degrade the accuracy of the derivative quantities of importance. The analytical solutions enable the user to use relatively few mesh points to accurately represent the regions of discontinuity. In addition, the spectral convergence and a linear relationship between the cost of computer memory/computation and particle numbers results in a very efficient method. In the present paper, the accuracy of the method is numerically investigated by example computations using one dielectric particle, one isolated conductor particle, one conductor particle connected to an external source with imposed voltage, and two conductor/dielectric particles with strong interactions. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with one million particles, which suggests that the method can be used for many important engineering applications of broad interest.  相似文献
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