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1.
Bulleyaconitine A (BLA) from Aconitum bulleyanum plants is usually used as anti‐inflammatory drug in some Asian countries. It has a variety of bioactivities, and at the same time some toxicities. Since the bioactivities and toxicities of BLA are closely related to its metabolism, the metabolites and the metabolic pathways of BLA in rat liver microsomes were investigated by HPLC–MSn. In this research, the 12 metabolites of BLA were identified according to the results of HPLC‐MSn data and the relevant literature. The results showed that there are multiple metabolites of BLA in rat liver microsomes, including demethylation, deacetylation, dehydrogenation deacetylation and hydroxylation. The major metabolic pathways of BLA in rat liver microsomes were clarified by HPLC‐MS combined with specific inhibitors of CYP450 isoforms. As a result, CYP3A and 2C were found to be the principal CYP isoforms contributing to the metabolism of BLA. Moreover, CYP2D6 and 2E1 are also more important CYP isoforms for the metabolism of BLA. While CYP1A2 only affected the formation rate of M11, its effect on the metabolism of BLA is very small. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information‐dependent acquisition scan for the low‐level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data‐processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Many efforts have been made toward the achievement of high sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis coupled with chemiluminescence detection (CE‐CL). This work describes a novel dual‐signal amplification strategy for highly specific and ultrasensitive CL detection of human platelet‐derived growth factor–BB (PDGF–BB) using both aptamer and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified gold nanoparticles (HRP–AuNPs–aptamer) as nanoprobes in CE. Both AuNPs and HRP in the nanoprobes could amplify the CL signals in the luminol–H2O2 CL system, owing to the excellent catalytic behavior of AuNPs and HRP in the CL system. Meanwhile, the high affinity of aptamer modified on the AuNPs allows detection with high specificity. As proof‐of‐concept, the proposed method was employed to quantify the concentration of PDGF–BB from 0.50 to 250 fm with a detection limit of 0.21 fm. The applicability of the assay was further demonstrated in the analysis of PDGF–BB in human serum samples with acceptable accuracy and reliability. The result of this study exhibits distinct advantages, such as high sensitivity, good specificity, simplicity, and very small sample consumption. The good performances of the proposed strategy provide a powerful avenue for ultrasensitive detection of rare proteins in biological sample, showing great promise in biochemical analysis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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The abundant production of methyl tert‐butyl ether (MTBE) and its widespread use have led to an increase in the potential for human exposure. This work described a simple, fast, sensitive, reliable and low‐cost method for the simultaneous measurement of MTBE and its metabolite, tert‐butyl alcohol (TBA) in human serum by headspace solid‐phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Extraction conditions were optimized and 40 °C, 10 min, 250 rpm and 0.3 g NaCl for a 1 mL sample were the optimal conditions. This method showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity with limits of detection in serum (1 mL) of 0.03 µg/L for MTBE and 0.05 µg/L for TBA, accuracy (mean recovery values) from 75.8% to 85.8%, precision (relative standard deviations) <10% and sample stability (biodegradation) <10% after 28 days. A verification experiment proved the reproducibility and stability of this method as well. Finally the method was used to detect 212 specimens, and the internal dose levels for MTBE in human serum were presented in China. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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