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1.
Threefold symmetric rigid‐core molecules with an internally grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chain were synthesized, and their self‐assembled structures were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, TEM, and 1D and 2D X‐ray scatterings in the solid state. The tripod compounds based on short PEO chains (n=8, 13, 17, 21), self‐assemble into 2D channel‐like network structures, whereas the compound with the longest PEO chain (n=34) forms a lamellar liquid crystalline phase. The interiors of the channel structures are filled with flexible PEO chains along the double‐walled aromatic circumference. In these channel‐like networks, three aromatic rods connected in the meta‐position to each other are superimposed in parallel to other adjacent molecules to form the double‐walled aromatic frameworks stacked perpendicular to the resulting channels. These are novel examples of supramolecular channel‐like structures developed using amphiphilic diblock molecules based on a threefold symmetric rigid scaffold.  相似文献   
2.
The carbon content of mesostructured organic‐inorganic hybrid material of a cylindrical block copolymer template of poly(2‐vinylpyridine)‐block‐poly(allyl methacrylate) (P2VP‐b‐PAMA) and ammonium paramolybdate (APM) could be reduced by thermal depolymerization. By calcination in vacuo at 320 °C the PAMA core can be completely removed while the remaining P2VP brush preserves the mesostructure. The P2VP‐APM composite can then be carburized in‐situ to MoOxCy in a second pyrolysis step without any additional carbon source but P2VP. The molybdenum oxycarbide nanotubes obtained, form hierarchically porous non‐woven structures, which were tested as catalyst in the decomposition of NH3. They proved to be catalytically active at temperatures above 450 °C. The activation energy was estimated from an Arrhenius Plot to be 127 kJ · mol–1.  相似文献   
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4.
The identification of protein complexes in protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks has greatly advanced our understanding of biological organisms. Existing computational methods to detect protein complexes are usually based on specific network topological properties of PPI networks. However, due to the inherent complexity of the network structures, the identification of protein complexes may not be fully addressed by using single network topological property. In this study, we propose a novel MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm (MOEPGA) which integrates multiple network topological features to detect biologically meaningful protein complexes. Our approach first systematically analyzes the multiobjective problem in terms of identifying protein complexes from PPI networks, and then constructs the objective function of the iterative algorithm based on three common topological properties of protein complexes from the benchmark dataset, finally we describe our algorithm, which mainly consists of three steps, population initialization, subgraph mutation and subgraph selection operation. To show the utility of our method, we compared MOEPGA with several state-of-the-art algorithms on two yeast PPI datasets. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only find more protein complexes but also achieve higher accuracy in terms of fscore. Moreover, our approach can cover a certain number of proteins in the input PPI network in terms of the normalized clustering score. Taken together, our method can serve as a powerful framework to detect protein complexes in yeast PPI networks, thereby facilitating the identification of the underlying biological functions.  相似文献   
5.
In cancer genomics, gene expression levels provide important molecular signatures for all types of cancer, and this could be very useful for predicting the survival of cancer patients. However, the main challenge of gene expression data analysis is high dimensionality, and microarray is characterised by few number of samples with large number of genes. To overcome this problem, a variety of penalised Cox proportional hazard models have been proposed. We introduce a novel network regularised Cox proportional hazard model and a novel multiplex network model to measure the disease comorbidities and to predict survival of the cancer patient. Our methods are applied to analyse seven microarray cancer gene expression datasets: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer and osteosarcoma. Firstly, we applied a principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality of original gene expression data. Secondly, we applied a network regularised Cox regression model on the reduced gene expression datasets. By using normalised mutual information method and multiplex network model, we predict the comorbidities for the liver cancer based on the integration of diverse set of omics and clinical data, and we find the diseasome associations (disease–gene association) among different cancers based on the identified common significant genes. Finally, we evaluated the precision of the approach with respect to the accuracy of survival prediction using ROC curves. We report that colon cancer, liver cancer and renal cancer share the CXCL5 gene, and breast cancer, ovarian cancer and renal cancer share the CCND2 gene. Our methods are useful to predict survival of the patient and disease comorbidities more accurately and helpful for improvement of the care of patients with comorbidity. Software in Matlab and R is available on our GitHub page: https://github.com/ssnhcom/NetworkRegularisedCox.git.  相似文献   
6.
Two new coordination polymers (CPs) formed from 5‐iodobenzene‐1,3‐dicarboxylic acid (H2iip) in the presence of the flexible 1,4‐bis(1H‐imidazol‐1‐yl)butane (bimb) auxiliary ligand, namely poly[[μ2‐1,4‐bis(1H‐imidazol‐1‐yl)butane‐κ2N3:N3′](μ3‐5‐iodobenzene‐1,3‐dicarboxylato‐κ4O1,O1′:O3:O3′)cobalt(II)], [Co(C8H3IO4)(C10H14N4)]n or [Co(iip)(bimb)]n, (1), and poly[[[μ2‐1,4‐bis(1H‐imidazol‐1‐yl)butane‐κ2N3:N3′](μ2‐5‐iodobenzene‐1,3‐dicarboxylato‐κ2O1:O3)zinc(II)] trihydrate], {[Zn(C8H3IO4)(C10H14N4)]·3H2O}n or {[Zn(iip)(bimb)]·3H2O}n, (2), were synthesized and characterized by FT–IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), solid‐state UV–Vis spectroscopy, single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction analysis and powder X‐ray diffraction analysis (PXRD). The iip2− ligand in (1) adopts the (κ11‐μ2)(κ1, κ1‐μ1)‐μ3 coordination mode, linking adjacent secondary building units into a ladder‐like chain. These chains are further connected by the flexible bimb ligand in a transtranstrans conformation. As a result, a twofold three‐dimensional interpenetrating α‐Po network is formed. Complex (2) exhibits a two‐dimensional (4,4) topological network architecture in which the iip2− ligand shows the (κ1)(κ1)‐μ2 coordination mode. The solid‐state UV–Vis spectra of (1) and (2) were investigated, together with the fluorescence properties of (2) in the solid state.  相似文献   
7.
Two new one‐dimensional CuII coordination polymers (CPs) containing the C2h‐symmetric terphenyl‐based dicarboxylate linker 1,1′:4′,1′′‐terphenyl‐3,3′‐dicarboxylate (3,3′‐TPDC), namely catena‐poly[[bis(dimethylamine‐κN)copper(II)]‐μ‐1,1′:4′,1′′‐terphenyl‐3,3′‐dicarboxylato‐κ4O,O′:O′′:O′′′] monohydrate], {[Cu(C20H12O4)(C2H7N)2]·H2O}n, (I), and catena‐poly[[aquabis(dimethylamine‐κN)copper(II)]‐μ‐1,1′:4′,1′′‐terphenyl‐3,3′‐dicarboxylato‐κ2O3:O3′] monohydrate], {[Cu(C20H12O4)(C2H7N)2(H2O)]·H2O}n, (II), were both obtained from two different methods of preparation: one reaction was performed in the presence of 1,4‐diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as a potential pillar ligand and the other was carried out in the absence of the DABCO pillar. Both reactions afforded crystals of different colours, i.e. violet plates for (I) and blue needles for (II), both of which were analysed by X‐ray crystallography. The 3,3′‐TPDC bridging ligands coordinate the CuII ions in asymmetric chelating modes in (I) and in monodenate binding modes in (II), forming one‐dimensional chains in each case. Both coordination polymers contain two coordinated dimethylamine ligands in mutually trans positions, and there is an additional aqua ligand in (II). The solvent water molecules are involved in hydrogen bonds between the one‐dimensional coordination polymer chains, forming a two‐dimensional network in (I) and a three‐dimensional network in (II).  相似文献   
8.
Blasting is an inseparable part of the rock fragmentation process in hard rock mining. As an adverse and undesirable effect of blasting on surrounding areas, airblast-overpressure (AOp) is constantly considered by blast designers. AOp may impact the human and structures in adjacent to blasting area. Consequently, many attempts have been made to establish empirical correlations to predict and subsequently control the AOp. However, current correlations only investigate a few influential parameters, whereas there are many parameters in producing AOp. As a powerful function approximations, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be utilized to simulate AOp. This paper presents a new approach based on hybrid ANN and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to predict AOp in quarry blasting. For this purpose, AOp and influential parameters were recorded from 62 blast operations in four granite quarry sites in Malaysia. Several models were trained and tested using collected data to determine the optimum model in which each model involved nine inputs, including the most influential parameters on AOp. In addition, two series of site factors were obtained using the power regression analyses. Findings show that presented PSO-based ANN model performs well in predicting the AOp. Hence, to compare the prediction performance of the PSO-based ANN model, the AOp was predicted using the current and proposed formulas. The training correlation coefficient equals to 0.94 suggests that the PSO-based ANN model outperforms the other predictive models.  相似文献   
9.
This paper investigates the relevance of different interpolation techniques to improve the spatial resolution of urban noise maps, in complement to measurements achieved at fixed stations. Interpolation techniques based on mobile measurements are compared to usual spatial interpolations techniques, namely Inverse Distance Weighting and Kriging. The analyses rely on a measurement campaign, which consisted of nearly 8 h of geo-referenced mobile noise measurements performed at random moments of the day, conducted simultaneously with continuous measurements collected at five fixed stations located on the inner city of Gent, Belgium.Firstly, a procedure is proposed to build a noise map with a high spatial resolution (one point every 5 m). The procedure relies on both mobile and fixed measurements: the mobile measurements are used to capture spatial variations on the network, and the measurements at fixed stations are used to capture the temporal variations. The map produced is then used as reference to compare the interpolation techniques based on a significantly more sparse measurement set.The spatial interpolation techniques tested fail in predicting accurately the noise level variations within streets. The explanation given is that they do not offer a sufficient covering of the network, and assume spatial variations which are not coherent with traffic dynamics or street configurations. Inversely, mobile measurements cover the entire network. As a result, they allow a more accurate prediction of noise levels even if very short samples are used, provided that the procedure used to estimate noise levels includes a spatial aggregation, which aims at smoothing the high spatial variations inevitable with short samples. Moreover, mobile measurements can advantageously be used to optimize, through a Genetic Algorithm, the locations where to install fixed stations, promising an efficient noise monitoring at reduced operational costs.  相似文献   
10.
Clifford algebra is introduced as a theoretical foundation for network topology expression and algorithm construction. Network nodes are coded with basis vectors in a vector space , and the edges and k‐walk routes can be expressed by 2‐blades and k‐blades, respectively, in the Clifford algebra Cl(n,0). The topologies among nodes, edges, and routes of networks can be directly calculated, and the network routes can be extended and traversed with oriented join products. The network algorithm construction processes based on Clifford algebra are instantiated by the single source shortest path algorithm. The experimental results on different scale random networks suggest that Clifford algebra is suited for network expression and relation computation. The Clifford algebra‐based shortest path algorithm is vivid and clear in geometric meaning and has great advantage on temporal and spatial complexity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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