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1.
This article reviews the field of molecular simulations of thermoset polymers. This class of polymers is of interest in applications ranging from structural components for aerospace to electronics packaging and predictive simulations of their response is playing an increasing role in understanding the molecular origin of their properties and complementing experiments in the search for tailored materials for specific applications. It focuses on modeling and simulation of the process of curing to predict the molecular structure of these polymers and their thermomechanical response by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Results from Monte Carlo and coarse-grained simulations are briefly summarized. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015 , 53, 103–122  相似文献   
2.
Polymer electrolytes containing N,N′-(trans-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl)dibenzamide linkages, polyethylene ((CH2)m, m = 2, 4, 10) spacers, and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA) or bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (FSA) counteranions (polymer abbreviation: CDBAm•X; m = 2, 4, 10; X = TFSA, FSA) have been synthesized, adding to our previous report (m = 6). In addition, their ability to effect the gelation of six ionic liquids and the properties of the resulting ionogels have been examined. The polymers, except for CDBA10•TFSA, effect the gelation for all ionic liquids used in this study at fairly low concentrations (0.9–50 g/L). Ionogel ionic conductivity is not dependent on the spacer length, but does decrease slightly as increasing amounts of the gelatinizer are introduced. In contrast to ionic conductivity, the temperatures at which these ionogels transition into isotropic fluids is dependent on the spacer length; the gel composed of [EMI][FSA] and 100 g/L of CDBA6•FSA transforms at 120 °C, while the gel composed of [EMI][FSA] and 5 g/L of CDBA2•FSA does not transform into a sol even when temperatures become 155 °C. In brief, ionogel heat resistance can be improved by changing the spacer length of the polyelectrolyte. Finally, it has been determined using cyclic voltammetry that the potential window of the polyelectrolytes is particularly wide, ranging from −1.6 to 2.5 V. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2015 , 53, 249–255  相似文献   
3.
Functionalization of the PNP pincer ligand backbone allows for a comparison of the dialkyl amido, vinyl alkyl amido, and divinyl amido ruthenium(II) pincer complex series [RuCl{N(CH2CH2PtBu2)2}], [RuCl{N(CHCHPtBu2)(CH2CH2PtBu2)}], and [RuCl{N(CHCHPtBu2)2}], in which the ruthenium(II) ions are in the extremely rare square‐planar coordination geometry. Whereas the dialkylamido complex adopts an electronic singlet (S=0) ground state and energetically low‐lying triplet (S=1) state, the vinyl alkyl amido and the divinyl amido complexes exhibit unusual triplet (S=1) ground states as confirmed by experimental and computational examination. However, essentially non‐magnetic ground states arise for the two intermediate‐spin complexes owing to unusually large zero‐field splitting (D>+200 cm?1). The change in ground state electronic configuration is attributed to tailored pincer ligand‐to‐metal π‐donation within the PNP ligand series.  相似文献   
4.
A new family of pentadecanuclear coordination cluster compounds (from now on simply referred to as clusters) [{Ln15(OH)20(PepCO2)10(DBM)10Cl}Cl4] (PepCO2=2‐[{3‐(((tert‐butoxycarbonyl)amino)methyl)benzyl}amino]acetate, DBM=dibenzoylmethanide) with Ln=Y and Dy was obtained by using the cell‐penetrating peptoid (CPPo) monomer PepCO2H and dibenzoylmethane (DBMH) as supporting ligands. The combination of an inorganic cluster core with an organic cell‐penetrating peptoid in the coordination sphere resulted in a core component {Ln153‐OH)20Cl}24+ (Ln=Y, Dy), which consists of five vertex‐sharing heterocubane {Ln43‐OH)4}8+ units that assemble to give a pentagonal cyclic structure with one Cl atom located in the middle of the pentagon. The solid‐state structures of both clusters were established by single‐crystal X‐ray crystallography. MS (ESI) experiments suggest that the cluster core is robust and maintained in solution. Pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR diffusion measurements were carried out on the diamagnetic yttrium compound and confirmed the stability of the cluster in its dicationic form [{Y153‐OH)20(PepCO2)10(DBM)10Cl}Cl2]2+. The investigation of both static (dc) and dynamic (ac) magnetic properties in the dysprosium cluster revealed a slow relaxation of magnetization, indicative of single‐molecule magnet (SMM) behavior below 8 K. Furthermore, the χT product as a function of temperature for the dysprosium cluster gave evidence that this is a ferromagnetically coupled compound below 11 K.  相似文献   
5.
Biological systems show impressive control over the shape, size and organization of mineral structures, which often leads to advanced physical properties that are tuned to the function of these materials. Such control is also found in magnetotactic bacteria, which produce—in aqueous medium and at room temperature—magnetite nanoparticles with precisely controlled morphologies and sizes that are generally only accessible in synthetic systems with the use of organic solvents and/or the use of high‐temperature methods. The synthesis of magnetite under biomimetic conditions, that is, in water and at room temperature and using polymeric additives as control agents, is of interest as a green production method for magnetic nanoparticles. Inspired by the process of magnetite biomineralization, a rational approach is taken by the use of a solid precursor for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles. The conversion of a ferrous hydroxide precursor, which we demonstrate with cryo‐TEM and low‐dose electron diffraction, is used to achieve control over the solution supersaturation such that crystal growth can be regulated through the interaction with poly‐(α,β)‐dl ‐aspartic acid, a soluble, negatively charged polymer. In this way, stable suspensions of nanocrystals are achieved that show remanence and coercivity at the size limit of superparamagnetism, and which are able to align their magnetic moments forming strings in solution as is demonstrated by cryo‐electron tomography.  相似文献   
6.
The cadmium(II) complexes [CdL1(m‐nba)2] ( 1 ), [CdL1(p‐nba)2] · C2H5OH ( 2 ), [CdL2(p‐nba)2] · CH3OH ( 3 ), and [CdL2(p‐nbat)2] ( 4 ) containing the ligands L1 and L2 [L1 = 2,6‐bis(benzimidazol‐2‐yl)pyridine, L2 = bis(2‐benzimidazolylmethyl)amine] were synthesized and characterized (m‐nba, p‐nba, and p‐nbat are the anions of p‐nitrobenzoic acid, m‐nitrobenzoic acid, and p‐nitrobenzeneacetic acid, respectively). The complexes were investigated by X‐ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analysis as well as IR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Compounds 1 – 3 contain a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal coordination sphere with CdII coordinated by two carboxylate ligands in bidentate‐chelating mode, whereas complex 4 exhibits a distorted octahedral arrangement with one carboxylate ligand in bidentate‐chelating and the other in monodentate coordination mode. 1 and 2 form a 1D chain interplayed by hydrogen bonding and strong π–π stacking interactions. 3 and 4 vary from 1D chain into 2D single‐layer and double‐layer networks because of more extensive hydrogen bonding interactions. The complexes show emission maxima in the blue region in the solid state and emission bands are red‐shifted compared to those of the free ligands.  相似文献   
7.
The synthesis and characterisation of the hexanuclear copper(II) carboxylate complex [Cu(O2CCHPhOC2H4OC2H4OCH3)2]6 ( 1 ) is described. Single‐crystal X‐ray structure analysis reveals that the copper(II) ions are arranged in a six‐membered ring which adopts a chair‐like conformation. The copper(II) ions are bridged by μ2‐ and μ3‐coordinating carboxylates. The magnetic behavior of 1 was measured between 2 and 300 K, revealing at low temperature a weak antiferromagnetic interaction. The χM(T) dependency was fitted mathematically with one coupling constant J1 and a paramagnetic impurity α.  相似文献   
8.
In order to investigate the effect of the organic ligands on the structures of coordination polymers, two new cadmium(II) coordination polymers based on the different dicarboxylate ligands, namely [Cd2(bpdc)2(DPNDI)2] · 3H2O · NMF ( 1 ) and [Cd(obb)(DPNDI)] ( 2 ) [H2bpdc = biphenyl‐4,4′‐dicarboxylate, H2obb = 4,4′‐oxybis(benzoic acid), DPNDI = N,N′‐bis(4‐pyridyl)‐1,4,5,8‐naphthalene tetracarboxydiimide, and NMF = N‐methylformamide), were synthesized under solvothermal condition and further characterized. Complex 1 shows a twofold interpenetrated pcu topology. Complex 2 possesses a two‐dimensional (2D) layer structure with –ABCD– stacking sequence. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of complexes 1 and 2 are investigated.  相似文献   
9.
Graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized using three different diamines, namely ethylenediamine (EDA), 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) to reinforce an epoxy adhesive, with the aim of improving the bonding strength of carbon fiber/epoxy composite. The chemical structure of the functionalized GO (FGO) nanosheets was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and XRD. Hand lay-up, as a simple method, was applied for 3-ply composite fabrication. In the sample preparation, the fiber-to-resin ratio of 40:60 (w:w) and fiber orientations of 0°, 90°, and 0° were used. The GO and FGO nanoparticles were first dispersed in the epoxy resin, and then the GO and FGO reinforced epoxy (GO- or FGO-epoxy) were directly introduced into the carbon fiber layers to improve the mechanical properties. The GO and FGO contents varied in the range of 0.1–0.5 wt%. Results showed that the mechanical properties, in terms of tensile and flexural properties, were mainly dependent on the type of GO functionalization followed by the percentage of modified GO. As a result, both the tensile and flexural strengths are effectively enhanced by the FGOs addition. The tensile and flexural moduli are also increased by the FGO filling in the epoxy resin due to the excellent elastic modulus of FGO. The optimal FGO content for effectively improving the overall composite mechanical performance was found to be 0.3 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the failure mechanism of carbon fibers pulled out from the epoxy matrix contributed to the enhancement of the mechanical performance of the epoxy. These results show that diamine FGOs can strengthen the interfacial bonding between the carbon fibers and the epoxy adhesive.  相似文献   
10.
A series of ketocyanine derivatives possessing bis(diarylamino)fluorenyl donors and variable acceptors installed at the bridging carbon atom were synthesized to investigate how the electronic structure of the dye can be systemically tuned through stabilization of the cyanine‐like character of the donor by increasing the acceptor strength. Analysis of the 1H NMR spectra indicates that the “charge‐separated” species dominates in these dyes, given that carbons possessing a positive or negative charge in the resonance structures of this state purposefully shift downfield or upfield, respectively, depending on the strength of the acceptor moiety. In DAA‐Fl‐PI, the acceptor strength and the gain of acceptor aromaticity indicates a predisposition of the separated state, indicated by asymmetry in the 1H NMR spectrum, as well as uneven distribution of the HOMO on the fluorenyl donor.  相似文献   
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