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1.
The ability to graft apatite surface by specific ligand fields creates powerful new technology applications. Thus, grafted organophosphonate can provide an effective route to modify the surface properties of apatite materials. The ability to decorate the apatite surface with the desired functionality requires covalent attachment to solid interface; most commonly achieved using organophosphonate self‐assembly. The current study shows that various phosphonates can react with calcium ions and control the formation of the porous apatite with high surface areas as well as the porosity. The structural and surface properties are given some importance in this review.  相似文献   
2.
The aim of this study was to find a satisfactory method to characterize the fatigue crack growth behavior of non-reinforced, semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). For this, crack growth curves (crack length versus cycle number) as well as crack growth kinetics curves (crack growth rate da/dN versus amplitude stress intensity factor ΔK) had to be generated. As methods suggested by ISO 15850 and ASTM E 647-11 failed to provide satisfactory results for the crack growth curves, a more advanced method was searched for and finally found in the literature. Regarding the crack growth kinetics curve, the idea of the calculation was based on methods recommended in ISO 15850 and ASTM E 647-11. However, these methods had to be considerably modified and improved in order to get accurate results with little scatter. The whole methodology was developed and verified with fatigue crack growth tests on two semi-crystalline thermoplastics (polyoxymethylene POM and polyetheretherketone PEEK).  相似文献   
3.
In this paper, we establish a new phytoplankton–zooplankton model by considering the effects of plankton body size and stochastic environmental fluctuations. Mathematical theory work mainly gives the existence of boundary and positive equilibria and shows their local as well as global stability in the deterministic model. Additionally, we explore the dynamics of V-geometric ergodicity, stochastic ultimate boundedness, stochastic permanence, persistence in the mean, stochastic extinction, and the existence of a unique ergodic stationary distribution in the corresponding stochastic version. Numerical simulation work mainly reveals that plankton body size can generate great influences on the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton, which in turn proves the effectiveness of mathematical theory analysis. It is worth emphasizing that for the small value of phytoplankton cell size, the increase of zooplankton body size can not change the phytoplankton density or zooplankton density; for the middle value of phytoplankton cell size, the increase of zooplankton body size can decrease zooplankton density or phytoplankton density; for the large value of phytoplankton cell size, the increase of zooplankton body size can increase zooplankton density but decrease phytoplankton density. Besides, it should be noted that the increase of zooplankton body size cannot affect the effect of random environmental disturbance, while the increase of phytoplankton cell size can weaken its effect. There results may enrich the dynamics of phytoplankton-zooplankton models.  相似文献   
4.
In order to quantitatively predict nano- as well as other particle-size distributions, one needs to have both a mathematical model and estimates of the parameters that appear in these models. Here, we show how one can use Bayesian inversion to obtain statistical estimates for the parameters that appear in recently derived mechanism-enabled population balance models (ME-PBM) of nanoparticle growth. The Bayesian approach addresses the question of “how well do we know our parameters, along with their uncertainties?.” The results reveal that Bayesian inversion statistical analysis on an example, prototype nanoparticle formation system allows one to estimate not just the most likely rate constants and other parameter values, but also their SDs, confidence intervals, and other statistical information. Moreover, knowing the reliability of the mechanistic model's parameters in turn helps inform one about the reliability of the proposed mechanism, as well as the reliability of its predictions. The paper can also be seen as a tutorial with the additional goal of achieving a “Gold Standard” Bayesian inversion ME-PBM benchmark that others can use as a control to check their own use of this methodology for other systems of interest throughout nature. Overall, the results provide strong support for the hypothesis that there is substantial value in using a Bayesian inversion methodology for parameter estimation in particle formation systems.  相似文献   
5.
基于紧凑拉伸剪切结构的复合型疲劳裂纹扩展研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
针对含I-II型复合裂纹的紧凑拉伸剪切(CTS)试样,研究了不同加载角度下的裂纹扩展路径及裂纹扩展寿命,通过实验数据给出了适宜于CTS试样的等效应力强度因子关系式,并基于此提出了一种新的I-II型复合裂纹扩展模型。研究表明,CTS试样的裂纹沿与加载方向近垂直的方向扩展,基于Tanaka公式的等效应力强度因子更适合于本文CTS试件的裂纹扩展寿命评估。当加载角度处于0°~45°之间时,提出的复合型裂纹扩展模型预测误差控制在5.49%之内,验证了分析模型的可行性和准确性。  相似文献   
6.
The aim of this paper is to present an online economical quality-control procedure for attributes in a process subject to quality deterioration after random shift and misclassification errors during inspections. The process starts in control (State I) and, in a random time, it shifts to out of control (State II). Once at State II, the non-conforming fraction increases according to a non-decreasing function ψ(z), where z is the number of items produced after a shift. The monitoring procedure consists of inspecting a single item at every m produced items, which is examined r times independently to decide its condition. Once an inspected item is declared non-conforming, the process is stopped and adjusted. A direct search technique is used to find the optimum parameters which minimize the expected cost function. The proposed model is illustrated by a numerical example. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
Photoinduced phase transitions caused by photochromic reactions bring about a change in the state of matter at constant temperature. Herein, we report the photoinduced phase transitions of crystals of a photoresponsive macrocyclic compound bearing two azobenzene groups ( 1 ) at room temperature on irradiation with UV (365 nm) and visible (436 nm) light. The trans/trans isomer undergoes photoinduced phase transitions (crystal–isotropic phase–crystal) on UV light irradiation. The photochemically generated crystal exhibited reversible phase transitions between the crystal and the mesophase on UV and visible light irradiation. The molecular order of the randomly oriented crystals could be increased by irradiating with linearly polarized visible light, and the value of the order parameter was determined to be ?0.84. Heating enhances the thermal cis‐to‐trans isomerization and subsequent cooling returned crystals of the trans/trans isomer.  相似文献   
8.
The structure and stability of adenine crystals and thin layers has been studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy, X‐ray diffraction, and density functional theory calculations. We have found that adenine crystals can be grown in two phases that are energetically quasi‐degenerate, the structure of which can be described as a pile‐up of 2D adenine planes. In each plane, the structure can be described as an aggregation of adenine dimers. Under certain conditions, kinetic effects can favor the growth of the less stable phase. These results have been used to understand the growth of adenine thin films on gold under ultra‐high vacuum conditions. We have found that the grown phase corresponds to the α‐phase, which is composed of stacked prochiral planes. In this way, the adenine nanocrystals exhibit a surface that is enantiopure. These results could open new insight into the applications of adenine in biological, medical, and enantioselective or pharmaceutical fields.  相似文献   
9.
10.
A new semiorganic compound, bis(diethylammonium) tetrachloromercurate(II) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature from its aqueous solution. The crystal system and the cell parameters have been identified from the powder X-ray diffraction pattern. The UV–visible absorption of the compound shows absorption at 246 nm and there is absorption observed in the entire visible region indicates that the compound can be used as a nonlinear optical material. The UV–visible transmittance spectrum of grown crystal shows a lower cut-off wavelength at 275 nm and it was found that the crystal is suitable for optoelectronic applications. Thermal studies were carried out to find out the thermal stability and confirm the stoichiometric ratio of the compound. The thermal anomalies in DSC study indicate the occurrence of first order transition in the compound at low temperatures. The FTIR spectrum of the compound characterizes various functional groups. The various kinds of protons and carbons were assigned through NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopic techniques. The SHG efficiency of the compound was studied by Kurtz-Perry power technique and observed that it has SHG efficiency 1.5 times greater than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound decreases with increase in frequency.  相似文献   
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