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1.
In this study, we propose a modelling framework for evaluating companies financed by random liabilities, such as insurance companies or commercial banks. In this approach, earnings and costs are driven by double exponential jump–diffusion processes and bankruptcy is declared when the income falls below a default threshold, which is proportional to the charges. A change of numeraire, under the Esscher risk neutral measure, is used to reduce the dimension. A closed form expression for the value of equity is obtained in terms of the expected present value operators, with and without disinvestment delay. In both cases, we determine the default threshold that maximizes the shareholder’s equity. Subsequently, the probabilities of default are obtained by inverting the Laplace transform of the bankruptcy time. In numerical applications of the proposed model, we apply a procedure for calibration based on market and accounting data to explain the behaviour of shares for two real-world examples of insurance companies.  相似文献   
2.
We consider a compound Poisson risk model with interest. The Gerber–Shiu discounted penalty function is modified with an additional penalty for reaching a level above the initial capital. We show that the problem can be split into two independent problems; an original Gerber–Shiu function and a first passage problem. We also consider the case of negative interest. Finally, we apply the results to a model considered by Embrechts and Schmidli (1994).  相似文献   
3.
Two-population stochastic mortality models play a crucial role in the securitization of longevity risk. In particular, they allow us to quantify the population basis risk when longevity hedges are built from broad-based mortality indexes. In this paper, we propose and illustrate a systematic process for constructing a two-population mortality model for a pair of populations. The process encompasses four steps, namely (1) determining the conditions for biological reasonableness, (2) identifying an appropriate base model specification, (3) choosing a suitable time-series process and correlation structure for projecting period and/or cohort effects into the future, and (4) model evaluation.For each of the seven single-population models from Cairns et al. (2009), we propose two-population generalizations. We derive criteria required to avoid long-term divergence problems and the likelihood functions for estimating the models. We also explain how the parameter estimates are found, and how the models are systematically simplified to optimize the fit based on the Bayes Information Criterion. Throughout the paper, the results and methodology are illustrated using real data from two pairs of populations.  相似文献   
4.
Modeling mortality co-movements for multiple populations have significant implications for mortality/longevity risk management. A few two-population mortality models have been proposed to date. They are typically based on the assumption that the forecasted mortality experiences of two or more related populations converge in the long run. This assumption might be justified by the long-term mortality co-integration and thus be applicable to longevity risk modeling. However, it seems too strong to model the short-term mortality dependence. In this paper, we propose a two-stage procedure based on the time series analysis and a factor copula approach to model mortality dependence for multiple populations. In the first stage, we filter the mortality dynamics of each population using an ARMA–GARCH process with heavy-tailed innovations. In the second stage, we model the residual risk using a one-factor copula model that is widely applicable to high dimension data and very flexible in terms of model specification. We then illustrate how to use our mortality model and the maximum entropy approach for mortality risk pricing and hedging. Our model generates par spreads that are very close to the actual spreads of the Vita III mortality bond. We also propose a longevity trend bond and demonstrate how to use this bond to hedge residual longevity risk of an insurer with both annuity and life books of business.  相似文献   
5.
This paper assesses optimal life cycle consumption and portfolio allocations when households have access to Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefit (GMWB) variable annuities over their adult lifetimes. Our contribution is to evaluate demand for these products which provide access to equity investments with money-back guarantees, longevity risk hedging, and partially-refundable premiums, in a realistic world with uncertain labor and capital market income as well as mortality risk. Others have predicted that consumers will only purchase such annuities late in life, but we show that they will optimally purchase GMWBs prior to retirement, consistent with their recent rapid uptick in sales. Additionally, many individuals optimally adjust their portfolios and consumption streams along the way by taking cash withdrawals from the products. These products can substantially enhance consumption, by up to 10% for those who experience highly unfavorable experiences in the stock market.  相似文献   
6.
We propose a class of distortion measures based on contagion from an external “scenario” variable. The dependence between the scenario and the variable whose risk is measured is modeled with a copula function with horizontal concave sections. Special cases are the perfect dependence copula, which generates expected shortfall, the Marshall–Olkin family and the Placket family. As an application, we evaluate distortion measures bank liabilities with respect to a country risk scenario in the current European debt crisis.  相似文献   
7.
This short note revisits the classical Theorem of Borch on the characterization of Pareto optimal risk exchange treaties under the expected utility paradigm. Our objective is to approach the optimal risk exchange problem by a new method, which is based on a Breeden–Litzenberger type integral representation formula for increasing convex functions and the theory of comonotonicity. Our method allows us to derive Borch’s characterization without using Kuhn–Tucker theory, and also without the need of assuming that all utility functions are continuously differentiable everywhere. We demonstrate that our approach can be used effectively to solve the Pareto optimal risk-sharing problem with a positivity constraint being imposed on the admissible allocations when the aggregate risk is positive.  相似文献   
8.
This paper considers a bidimensional renewal risk model with constant interest force and dependent subexponential claims. Under the assumption that the claim size vectors form a sequence of independent and identically distributed random vectors following a common bivariate Farlie–Gumbel–Morgenstern distribution, we derive for the finite-time ruin probability an explicit asymptotic formula.  相似文献   
9.
We study the problem of optimal reinsurance as a means of risk management in the regulatory framework of Solvency II under Conditional Value-at-Risk and, as its natural extension, spectral risk measures. First, we show that stop-loss reinsurance is optimal under both Conditional Value-at-Risk and spectral risk measures. Spectral risk measures thus constitute a more general class of suitable regulatory risk measures than specific Conditional Value-at-Risk. At the same time, the established type of stop-loss reinsurance can be maintained as the optimal risk management strategy that minimizes regulatory capital. Second, we derive the optimal deductibles for stop-loss reinsurance. We show that under Conditional Value-at-Risk, the optimal deductible tends towards restrictive and counter-intuitive corner solutions or “plunging”, which is a serious objection against its use in regulatory risk management. By means of the broader class of spectral risk measures, we are able to overcome this shortcoming as optimal deductibles are now interior solutions. Especially, the recently discussed power spectral risk measures and the Wang risk measure are shown to avoid any plunging. They yield a one-to-one correspondence between the risk parameter and the optimal deductible and, thus, provide economically plausible risk management strategies.  相似文献   
10.
We study existence of unbiased estimators of risk for estimators of the location parameter of a spherically symmetric distribution, when a residual vector is available to estimate scale, under invariant quadratic loss. We show such existence often characterizes normality.  相似文献   
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