首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   77967篇
  免费   2258篇
  国内免费   61篇
化学   43567篇
晶体学   1197篇
力学   2735篇
综合类   2篇
数学   8936篇
物理学   23849篇
  2023年   953篇
  2022年   809篇
  2021年   1089篇
  2020年   1643篇
  2019年   1270篇
  2018年   2286篇
  2017年   2588篇
  2016年   2314篇
  2015年   1512篇
  2014年   2837篇
  2013年   6786篇
  2012年   4444篇
  2011年   5494篇
  2010年   3911篇
  2009年   3926篇
  2008年   3953篇
  2007年   4042篇
  2006年   3439篇
  2005年   2793篇
  2004年   1914篇
  2003年   1663篇
  2002年   1239篇
  2001年   865篇
  2000年   872篇
  1999年   681篇
  1998年   505篇
  1997年   527篇
  1996年   493篇
  1995年   513篇
  1994年   555篇
  1993年   503篇
  1992年   483篇
  1991年   509篇
  1990年   498篇
  1989年   575篇
  1988年   529篇
  1987年   570篇
  1986年   515篇
  1985年   850篇
  1984年   946篇
  1983年   495篇
  1982年   766篇
  1981年   717篇
  1980年   759篇
  1979年   652篇
  1978年   608篇
  1977年   604篇
  1976年   567篇
  1975年   386篇
  1973年   464篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
In this work, the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been produced by new reverse micro emulsion method containing β‐cyclodextrin, poly(oxyethylene)5 nonyl phenol ether and cyclohexane. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscope and X‐ray diffraction were used to characterize the particles. The sizes of the nanoparticles were identified between 70‐80 nm. In conclusion, these results suggested that the developed reverse micro emulsion system based nanoparticles seem to be a promising formulation for calcium phosphate nanoparticles synthesis and it has immense potential in delivery of drugs and vaccines.  相似文献   
2.
A facile one‐pot, three‐component protocol for the synthesis of novel spiro[3H‐indole‐3,2′‐thiazolidine]‐2,4′(1H)‐diones by condensing 1H‐indole‐2,3‐diones, 4H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐4‐amine and 2‐sulfanylpropanoic acid in [bmim]PF6 (1‐butyl‐3‐methyl‐1H‐imidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as a recyclable ionic‐liquid solvent gave good to excellent yields in the absence of any catalyst (Scheme 1 and Table 2). The advantages of this protocol over conventional methods are the mild reaction conditions, the high product yields, a shorter reaction time, as well as the eco‐friendly conditions.  相似文献   
3.
The first example of the stereoselective synthesis of (Z)‐ and (E)‐allyl aryl sulfides and selenides from Baylis? Hillman acetates under neutral conditions in H2O by supramolecular catalysis involving β‐cyclodextrin is reported. β‐Cyclodextrin can be recovered and reused. The reaction is very efficient in providing allyl aryl sulfides and selenides in good‐to‐excellent yields with clean reaction profiles under mild reaction conditions.  相似文献   
4.
The synthesis of bolaamphiphiles from unusual β‐amino acids or an alcohol and C12 or C20 spacers is described. Unusual β‐amino acids such as a sugar amino acid, an AZT‐derived amino acid, a norbornene amino acid, and an AZT‐derived amino alcohol were coupled with spacers under standard conditions to get the novel bolaamphiphiles 5 – 8 (Scheme 1), 12 and 13 (Scheme 2), and 17 and 20 (Scheme 3). Some of these compounds, on precipitation from MeOH/H2O, self‐assembled into organized molecular structures.  相似文献   
5.
Theoretical investigation on local electronic structure and stability of the π–π stacking interaction of pyrazinamide (PZA) with armchair (5,5) and zigzag (9,0) single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is performed using density functional theory (DFT). PZA is physisorbed onto nanotube sidewall through interaction of π orbitals of PZA and SWCNT and the enhanced structural stability of PZA/SWCNT systems is due to weak side‐on rather than the head‐on π‐interactions. The physisorption of PZA onto SWCNT sidewall is thermodynamically favored; as a consequence, it modulates the electronic properties of pristine nanotube in the vicinity of Fermi region and π–π stacked interactions is stronger in (9,0) SWCNT compared to (5,5) SWCNT. The density of states (DOS) analysis show that PZA contributes toward the enhancement of electronic states. Projected DOS and frontier orbital analysis in the vicinity of Fermi level region suggest the electronic states to be contributed from SWCNT rather than PZA. In addition, hybrid DFT calculation which includes the dispersion correction is employed to explain the non‐covalent π–π stacking interaction between PZA and SWCNT. The local density approximation and GGA results are compared with DFT‐D to explain near about accurately the weak nonbonded van der Waals interactions between PZA and SWCNTs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
6.
The redox cycle between alloxan, a mild oxidizing agent, and its reduction partner, dialuric acid, is investigated using density functional theory. It is found that the initial step is the one‐electron reduction of alloxan followed by protonation, yielding a stable neutral radical, AH·. The radical can then accept another electron to form the dialuric acid anion. The formation of this anion is thermodynamically favored in both the gas phase and in solution. The radical may also undergo dimerization to alloxantin, followed by the transfer of a proton from one moiety to another, yielding alloxan and dialuric acid. This reduction is thermodynamically feasible in the gas phase, but not in aqueous solution. In the case of reduction of alloxan by glutathione at the physiological pH, computed redox potentials indicate that a two‐electron reduction is the favored course of reaction, yielding directly the dialuric acid anion, which then undergoes aerial oxidation to yield the superoxide radical. The redox cycling between alloxan and dialuric acid is responsible for the diabetogenic activity of alloxan, producing cytotoxic radicals on reoxidation of dialuric acid. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
7.
In present investigation, the interactions of iridium (Ir) atom with fluorine (F) atoms have been studied using the density functional theory. Up to seven F atoms were able to bind to a single Ir atom which resulted in increase of electron affinities successively, reaching a peak value of 7.85 eV for IrF7. The stability and reactivity of these clusters were analyzed by calculating highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)–LUMO gaps, molecular orbitals and binding energies of these clusters. The unusual properties of these clusters are due to the involvement of inner shell 5d‐electrons, which not only allows IrFn clusters to belong to the class of superhalogens but also shows that its valence can exceed the nominal value of 2. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
8.
Synthesis of 2‐(o‐nitrophenyl)‐6‐arylthiazolo[3,2‐b]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 4 and its isomer 3‐(o‐nitrophenyl)‐5‐arylthiazolo[2,3‐c]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 6 has been achieved starting from the appropriate 1‐(o‐nitrobenzoyl)‐3‐thiosemicarbazide 1 . Compound 1 on condensation with α‐haloketones gives 2‐(o‐nitrobenzoyl)hydrazino‐4‐arylthiazole hydrobromide 5 , which, on cyclization with POCl3, affords thiazolo[3,2‐b]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 6 and not the isomeric thiazolo[3,2‐b]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 4 . This has been established by an unequivocal synthesis of 4 through polyphosphoric acid cyclization of 5‐aroylmethylmercapto‐3‐o‐nitrophenyl‐[1,2,4]‐triazole 3 . Compound 3 was synthesized by condensation of α‐haloketones with 5‐mercapto‐3‐(o‐nitrophenyl)‐[1,2,4]‐triazole 2 , obtained cyclization of 2‐(o‐nitrobenzoyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide 1 with NaOH. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of some of the compounds have also been evaluated.  相似文献   
9.
The title compounds 5a , 5b , 5c , 5d , 5e , 5f , 5g , 5h and 6a , 6b , 6c , 6d , 6e , 6f , 6g , 6h have been synthesized from β‐diketones and chromones, respectively, having 5‐methyl‐3‐phenylisoxazole moiety. Substituted 2‐acetylphenyl 5‐methyl‐3‐phenylisoxazole‐4‐carboxylate 3a , 3b , 3c , 3d , 3e , 3f , 3g , 3h were converted into 1‐(2‐hydroxyphenyl)‐3‐(5‐methyl‐3‐phenylisoxazole‐4‐yl)propane‐1,3‐dione 4a , 4b , 4c , 4d , 4e , 4f , 4g , 4h by Baker–Venketaraman transformation. Further, the cyclodehydration of diketone 4a , 4b , 4c , 4d , 4e , 4f , 4g , 4h with glacial acetic acid in conc. HCl at reflux gave corresponding substituted 2‐(5‐methyl‐3‐phenylisoxazole‐4‐yl)‐4H‐chromen‐4‐one 5a , 5b , 5c , 5d , 5e , 5f , 5g , 5h . The corresponding 5a , 5b , 5c , 5d , 5e , 5f , 5g , 5h react with hydrazine hydrate in presence of glacial acetic acid in ethanol at reflux to furnish 2‐(5‐5(5‐methyl‐3‐phenylisoxazole‐4‐yl)‐1H‐pyrazole‐3‐yl)phenol 6a , 6b , 6c , 6d , 6e , 6f , 6g , 6h . The structures of all newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral data, as well as elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activity. Some of the compounds show better antimicrobial activity as compared with the reference drugs Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Gentamycin, Cefixime, and Ketoconazole.  相似文献   
10.
A straightforward and general approach for the stereoselective synthesis of fused pyrrolo[1,2‐a] indoles frameworks from>intramolecular 1,3‐dipolar cycloaddition using N‐alkylated Baylis–Hillman derivatives is presented. It was found that the cycloaddition proceeded efficiently under microwave irradiation in solvent‐free condition to afford highly stereoselective cycloadducts in good yield.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号