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1.
Three new furofuran lignans, (+)‐4,4′‐O‐diangeloylpinoresinol ( 1 ), (+)‐4,4′‐O‐diangeloylmedioresinol ( 2 ), and (+)‐4,4′‐O‐diangeloylsyringaresinol ( 3 ), together with the known compound (+)‐syringaresinol, were isolated from the MeOH extract of Rudbeckia laciniata. The structure elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR, and HR‐ESI‐MS data. The additional structural evidence was obtained from alkaline hydrolysis of the compounds.  相似文献   
2.
The dissolution phenomenon of Mn ions in LiMn2O4 (LMO) cathode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) was investigated by a first principle calculation using the discrete variational Xα molecular orbital method. It was found that the oxidation number of Mn ions easily increases at high temperatures due to the empty levels of Mn 3d orbitals located in the vicinity of the Fermi energy level of LMO crystal. The changes of density of states (DOS) and Mn‐O bonding properties with doping were examined. Analysis of DOS showed that the substitution of elements with a smaller oxidation number than Mn was found effective in keeping Mn ions at higher oxidation states. From the calculation of bonding properties, the dissolution of Mn was found to be strongly correlated with the covalent nature of Mn‐O bond. Based on the results, we concluded that increasing the covalent character of Mn‐O bond is effective to minimize the dissolution of Mn ions, along with suppressing the formation of Jahn‐Teller‐active Mn3+ by inducing Mn ions at high oxidation state with proper selection of doping elements. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
3.
Three new 5‐hydroxyindole alkaloids ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) along with seven known analogs ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ) were isolated from a Dokdo marine sponge Scalarispongia sp. The elucidation of the structures of the new compounds by spectroscopic analyses indicated that these compounds were an indole glyoxylate ( 1 ), a mono‐indole analog of hyrtinadine A ( 2 ), and a symmetrical bis‐indole with pyridine linker ( 3 ). The comparison of IC50 values for obtained compounds against a human leukemia cell line revealed that the bis‐indole structure is a requirement for cytotoxicity.  相似文献   
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5.
Gold nanospheres modified with bifunctional molecules have been separated and characterized by using agarose gel electrophoresis as well as optical spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The electrophoretic mobility of a gold nanosphere capped with 11‐mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) has been found to depend on the number of MUA molecules per gold nanosphere, indicating that it increases with the surface charge of the nanoparticle. The extinction spectrum of gold nanospheres capped with MUA at an MUA molecules per gold nanosphere value of 1000 and connected via 1,6‐hexanedithiol (HDT) decreases by 33% in magnitude and shifts to the red as largely as 22 nm with the increase of the molar ratio of HDT to MUA (RHM). Gold nanospheres capped with MUA and connected via HDT have been separated successfully using gel electrophoresis and characterized by measuring reflectance spectra of discrete electrophoretic bands directly in the gel and by monitoring transmission electron microscope images of gold nanoparticles collected from the discrete bands. Electrophoretic mobility has been found to decrease substantially with the increment of HDT to MUA, indicating that the size of aggregated gold nanoparticles increases with the concentration of HDT.  相似文献   
6.
We developed the dual‐micropillar‐based microfluidic platform to direct embryonic stem (ES) cell fate. 4 × 4 dual‐micropillar‐based microfluidic platform consisted of 16 circular‐shaped outer micropillars and 8 saddle‐shaped inner micropillars in which single ES cells were cultured. We hypothesized that dual‐micropillar arrays would play an important role in controlling the shear stress and cell docking. Circular‐shaped outer micropillars minimized the shear stress, whereas saddle‐shaped inner micropillars allowed for docking of individual ES cells. We observed the effect of saddle‐shaped inner micropillars on cell docking in response to hydrodynamic resistance. We also demonstrated that ES cells cultured for 6 days within the dual‐micropillar‐based microfluidic platform differentiated into neural‐like cells. Therefore, this dual‐micropillar‐based microfluidic platform could be a potentially powerful method for screening of lineage commitments of single ES cells.  相似文献   
7.
Amorphous SiO2 films were deposited by means of an electrospray technique. The relation between the water contact angle (WCA) of the deposited SiO2 films and the surface morphology is investigated. The feeding rate of the electrospray process greatly affects the morphology of the synthesized SiO2 films. There is also a significant change in the WCA on the surface of the films: the rougher the surface, the greater the WCA. A model based on the Cassie–Baxter formulation is used to explain the change observed in the WCA on the SiO2 films. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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9.
We propose a method for fast switching of vertically aligned (VA) negative liquid crystals (LCs) by hiding the relaxation process of LCs. During the turn-off process, a strong in-plane electric field is applied for a short duration of time instead of relying solely on the slow relaxation of LCs. The LC molecules are rotated to the transmission axis of one of the polarisers by the applied in-plane electric field, resulting in turn-off switching that is 5.8 times faster than that of a conventional VA cell. By applying an overdriving scheme, we experimentally obtained a total response time of 3.3 ms.  相似文献   
10.
This paper describes a novel implementation of a dual-frequency liquid crystal optical shutter of the guest–host type. The transmissive state of the filter is obtained by applying a low-frequency electric field that brings the dichroic dye in a homeotropic orientation. The light-absorbing state is realised by a twisted planar configuration for which the absorption is quasi-independent of the polarisation. Switching between the two states occurs in about 1 ms and the devices show no scattering for wavelengths inside or outside the absorption band of the dichroic dye. Simulations and experiments reveal how a twisted state is obtained through the backflow phenomenon.  相似文献   
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