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Crack detection is existing structures using measured dynamic response information is presented in this paper. The general area of health assessment of existing structures in the presence of uncertainty in modeling the structure, characteristics of sensors, and the dynamic response information collected by the sensors is emphasized. A time domain system identification-based procedure is proposed to assess health of a structure at the finite element level in the presence of all major sources of uncertainty. It is denoted as the GILS-EKF-UI method. The method does not require information on excitation that caused the response and the noise-contaminated response information needs not be available at all dynamic degrees of freedom. The method is verified using computer generated analytical and actual measured response information emphasizing three items: (1) identification of the defect-free frame, (2) detection of location of a crack accurately within a defective element, and (3) detection of a crack using limited response information using the GILS-EKF-UI method.  相似文献
2.
Vibration peaks occurring at rational fractions of the fundamental rotating critical speed, here named Local Resonances, facilitate cracked shaft detection during machine shut-down. A modified Jeffcott-rotor on journal bearings accounting for gravity effects and oscillating around nontrivial equilibrium points is employed. Modal parameter selection allows this linear model to represent first mode characteristics of real machines. Orbit evolution and vibration patterns are analyzed, yielding useful results. Crack detection results indicate that, instead of 1x and 2x components, analysis of the remaining local resonances should have priority; this is due to crack-residual imbalance interaction and to 2x multiple induced origins. Therefore, local resonances and orbital evolution around 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 of the critical speed are emphasized for various crack-imbalance orientations. To cite this article: J. Gómez-Mancilla et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

Résumé

Les pics de vibration apparaissant au passage des fractions de la vitesse de critique de rotation des systèmes tournants, appelées résonances locales, facilitent la détection de fissures sur les machines. Dans cette étude, un modèle de rotor Jeffcott modifié avec une fissure tournante, comportant des coussinets et prenant en compte les effets de pesanteur et de balourd est présenté. Le choix modal des paramètres permet de représenter les caractéristiques liées au premier mode des machines tournantes usuelles. Les évolutions des vibrations et des orbites du système comportant une fissure sont analysées et permettent d'obtenir des résultats utiles pour la détection des fissures sur les machines tournantes. Ainsi, ces résultats indiquent que, en plus des composants 1x et 2x, l'analyse des autres résonances locales restantes doivent être regardées avec attention du fait de l'interaction possible entre les différentes orientations de la fissure et du balourd, et des origines multiples pouvant engendrer la présence des résonances 2x. Par conséquent les résonances et l'évolution des orbites obtenus autour de 1/2, 1/3 et 1/4 de la vitesse critique sont étudiées pour différentes variations d'angle entre le balourd et l'orientation de la fissure. Pour citer cet article : J. Gómez-Mancilla et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).  相似文献
3.
This paper demonstrates a methodology for detecting cracks in a metal spindle, which is housed within a military vehicle wheel end assembly. A finite element model is used to estimate the undamped natural frequencies of the raw spindle. Additional mass and stiffness is then added to a simplified model of the spindle to simulate sources of variability within the assembly. Spindles are tested outside the wheel end assembly to compare the responses of undamaged and cracked spindles. A hypothesis testing approach is developed to detect the presence of a crack based on damage indices involving the summation and multiplication of spectral energies. Experiments on wheel assemblies mounted on a vehicle with the vehicle lifted off the ground are performed to demonstrate that the wheel assemblies can be nondestructively evaluated to identify cracks of varying depths despite sources of variability due to the presence of the brake drum, lack of repeatability in the sensor attachment, and other issues.  相似文献
4.
An alternative technique for crack detection in a Timoshenko beam based on the first anti-resonant frequency is presented in this paper.Unlike the natural frequency,the anti-resonant frequency is a local parameter rather than a global parameter of structures,thus the proposed technique can be used to locate the structural defects.An impedance analysis of a cracked beam stimulated by a harmonic force based on the Timoshenko beam formulation is investigated.In order to characterize the local discontinuity due to cracks,a rotational spring model based on fracture mechanics is proposed to model the crack.Subsequently,the proposed method is verified by a numerical example of a simply-supported beam with a crack.The effect of the crack size on the anti-resonant frequency is investigated.The position of the crack of the simply-supported beam is also determined by the anti-resonance technique.The proposed technique is further applied to the"contaminated"anti-resonant frequency to detect crack damage,which is obtained by adding 1-3% noise to the calculated data.It is found that the proposed technique is effective and free from the environment noise.Finally,an experimental study is performed,which further verifies the validity of the proposed crack identification technique.  相似文献
5.
This paper presents a feasibility study for practical applications of an impedance-based real-time health monitoring technique applying PZT (Lead–Zirconate–Titanate) patches to concrete structures. First, comparison between experimental and analytical studies for damage detection on a plain concrete beam is made. In the experimental study, progressive surface damage inflicted artificially on the plain concrete beam is assessed by using both lateral and thickness modes of the PZT patches. Then, an analytical study based on finite element (FE) models is carried out to verify the validity of the experimental result. Secondly, multiple (shear and flexural) cracks incurred in a reinforced concrete (RC) beam under a third point bending test are monitored continuously by using a sensor array system composed of the PZT patches. In this study, a root mean square deviation (RMSD) in the impedance signatures of the PZT patches is used as a damage indicator.  相似文献
6.
In this paper we present an application of the grid method to the assessment of crack initiation and growth in brittle materials. It is shown that a grid deposited on the surface of a structure can be utilized to characterize the crack location and opening. Furthermore, one single picture only is required to carry out a control over a predefined area. First, the principle of the method is introduced, showing that a periodical pattern encoding a cracked surface can be analyzed by signal processing. The phase modulation of the grid can be calculated very accurately for any small deformation of the structure. Discontinuities due to cracks are easily detected on the phase field and the crack width is proportional to the amplitude of the discontinuity. Secondly, the performances of the method are presented, mainly depending on the spatial frequency of both the pattern and the sampling. It is shown that good results can generally be obtained with few setting difficulties and equipment investment. Finally, we sum up some basic recommendations for the practical use of the technique.  相似文献
7.
对分布式光纤裂缝检测技术中光纤-混凝土复合体的微观力学行为进行了分析.考虑了涂覆-护套、护套-混凝土双界面的状态非线性,混凝土采用双线性各向同性强化模型以消减局部应力集中,避免护套-混凝土之间的过度穿透.采用试验确定的接触对力学参数,用ANSYS进行了数值模拟,得到了光纤-混凝土复合体的微观应力分布及光纤的曲率分布.定量分析了缝宽与弯曲损耗的关系,计算结果与试验结果符合较好,从理论上验证了光纤布置方式、护套厚度对传感灵敏度和动态范围的影响,为分布式光纤裂缝检测技术提供了修正的微观力学分析理论和方法.  相似文献
8.
This paper presents the numerical modeling and simulations of PZT-induced Lamb wave propagation in plate-like structures by using the spectral finite element method. A novel spectral plate finite element, which can efficiently model the three-dimensional (3D) behavior of Lamb waves, is proposed. In the formulation, linear displacement distributions in the thickness direction are assumed for both the PZT layer and the base plate. A way to avoid the thickness locking is proposed and used in the formulations. Two examples, one for the validation of the proposed two-dimensional (2D) spectral finite element and the other for the demonstration of crack detection in plates, are presented and discussed. The contact between the two faces of crack is considered. Numerical results show that (1) only the anti-symmetric mode is prone to thickness locking thus remedy should be made only on this part, (2) the proposed 2D spectral finite element can adequately model the Lamb wave propagation in plate-like structures and the complex scattering for the crack, and (3) crack location can be well determined by a PZT-induced Lamb wave-based diagnosis algorithm.  相似文献
9.
基于数值方法研究裂纹损伤对塔式壳体结构动态特性的影响。建立了等截面直立塔壳结构有限元模型,采用刚度下降法模拟不同程度受损单元,计算了无损和不同损伤工况下(耳式支座与塔体角焊缝处环向裂纹损伤),结构的固有振动特性和脉动风载荷作用下结构的动态响应。结果表明:结构振动信号可以反映塔壳结构局部不同程度损伤的影响,裂纹损伤对固有频率影响较小,最大20%损伤对固有频率的减小约为7%~8%;对模态振型影响较大,尤其在高阶(如15阶频率)上可能出现新的振型;对位移响应、动应力影响最为明显。  相似文献
10.
Identification of non-linear systems is mainly limited to polynomial form non-linearities. Among the non-polynomial forms, bilinear oscillator constitutes an important class of non-linear systems and it has been used for modeling of various physical systems, particularly for structural elements with a breathing crack. An identification procedure is presented here for the class of bilinear oscillator, using higher order FRFs derived from Volterra series under harmonic excitation. The procedure addresses the problem of both; identification of the non-linearity structure as well as estimation of the bilinear parameter, which can be correlated to the crack severity and structural degradation. The procedure is illustrated with numerical simulation and the estimation results indicate that even a weakly bilinear state introduced by a small crack size can be accurately identified and measured.  相似文献
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