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1.
The thermotropic phase transitions compounds (n‐CnH2n+1R3)2ZnCl4 as well as a series of their binary mixtures were prepared by a solution reflux method from their ethanol solutions. The experimental subsolidus binary phase diagram of [n‐C18H37N(CH3)3]2ZnCl4‐[n‐(C18H37)2N(CH3)2]2ZnCl4 is constructed over the entire composition range by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and X‐ray. Experi‐ mental results indicate one stable intermediate phase [n‐C18H37N(CH3)3] [n‐(C18H37)2N(CH3)2]ZnCl4 at WC18C3Zn %=59.75 %, and two invariant three phase equilibria, which shows two eutectoid temperatures: Te1 at 310±1 K for eutectoid point WC18C3Zn %=36.24 %, Te2 at 313±1 K for eutectoid point WC18C3Zn %=80.17 %. These three noticeable solid‐solution ranges are α‐phase at the left, ?‐phase at the right, and ψ‐phase in the middle of the phase diagram. It is (n‐CnH2n+1R3)2ZnCl4 systems as phase change materials that are characterized the phase transition temperatures T in the range of 310 to 340 K, the transition enthalpies ΔH in the range of 38.40 and 168.72 J/g between two polymorphic forms.  相似文献   
2.
Besides studies on the mineralization process, research on the demineralization of minerals provides another way to understand the crystallization mechanism of biominerals and fabricate crystals with complicated morphologies. The formation of ordered arrays of c‐axis‐oriented calcite microneedles with a tri‐symmetric structure and lengths of more than 20 μm was realized on a large scale for the first time through anisotropic dissolution of calcite substrates in undersaturated aqueous solution in the presence of ammonium salts. The lengths and the aspect ratios of the calcite microneedles can be tuned by simply changing the concentrations of the ammonium salts and the dissolution time. The shape of the transverse cross sections of the calcite microneedles obtained in the presence of NH4Cl and NH4Ac is almost regularly triangular. The tri‐symmetric transverse cross‐section geometry of the calcite microneedles could be attributed to the tri‐symmetric feature of rhombohedral calcite atomic structures, the synergetic interactions between electrostatic interaction of ammonium ions and dangling surface carbonate groups, and the ion incorporation of halide ions.  相似文献   
3.
A group of new chiral dications with a fixed, specific configuration at the stereogenic nitrogen center was created. Stereoselective synthesis and recrystallization give the diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure dications, including a chiral amphiphile with surface‐active properties.  相似文献   
4.
Polychloride monoanions stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts are investigated using Raman spectroscopy and state‐of‐the‐art quantum‐chemical calculations. A regular V‐shaped pentachloride is characterized for the [N(Me)4][Cl5] salt, whereas a hockey‐stick‐like structure is tentatively assigned for [N(Et)4][Cl2???Cl3?]. Increasing the size of the cation to the quaternary ammonium salts [NPr4]+ and [NBu4]+ leads to the formation of the [Cl3]? anion. The latter is found to be a pale yellow liquid at about 40 °C, whereas all the other compounds exist as powders. Further to these observations, the novel [Cl9]? anion is characterized by low‐temperature Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum‐chemical calculations.  相似文献   
5.
Uniform mesoporous zeolite ZSM‐5 crystals have been successfully fabricated through a simple hydrothermal synthetic method by utilizing ammonium‐modified chitosan and tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) as the meso‐ and microscale template, respectively. It was revealed that mesopores with diameters of 5–20 nm coexisted with microporous network within mesoporous ZSM‐5 crystals. Ammonium‐modified chitosan was demonstrated to serve as a mesoporogen, self‐assembling with the zeolite precursor through strong static interactions. As expected, the prepared mesoporous ZSM‐5 exhibited greatly enhanced catalytic activities compared with conventional ZSM‐5 and Al‐MCM‐41 in reactions involving bulky molecules, such as the Claisen–Schmidt condensation of 2‐hydroxyacetophenone with benzaldehyde and the esterification reaction of dodecanoic acid and 2‐ethylhexanol.  相似文献   
6.
The paper presents a novel method for the flotation separation of Bi3+ using microcrystalline adsorption system prior to the determination by spectrophotometry. The effects of different parameters, such as the dosages of KI and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTMAB), various salts and acidity etc. on the flotation yield of Bi3+ have been investigated to select the optimum experimental conditions. The possible flotation separation mechanism of Bi3+ was discussed. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide cation (DTMAB+ ) reacted with I? to produce themicrocrystalline matter (Ms‐M) of (DTMAB+·I?), the water‐insoluble ternary association complex of (DTMAB)3[BiI6] which produced by Bi3+ and I?, DTMAB+ was quantificationally adsorbed on the surface of Ms‐M of (DTMAB+·I?) and was floated above water phase, the liquid‐solid phases were formed with clear interface. In this condition, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and Al3+ could not be floated. Therefore, Bi3+ was separated completely from the above metal ions. A new method for flotation separation and determination of bismuth using microcrystalline adsorption system was established. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Bi3+ in bismuthiferous drug samples, and the results agreed well with those obtained by pharmacopoeia method. The recoveries were 94.1%~106.8%, and the RSD was 1.5%~2.3%.  相似文献   
7.
Repeated reaction between chiral quaternary ammonium dimer and disodium disulfonate gave the ionic polymer, which contains chiral quaternary ammonium sulfonate structure as a repeating unit. This chiral ionic polymer showed an excellent catalytic activity in asymmetric alkylation reaction. With the chiral ionic polymer catalysts, high level of enantioselectivities up to 97% ee were attained.  相似文献   
8.
The corrosion inhibition of ammonium heltamolybdate (AH) and calcium gluconate (CG) for AA6061 alloy in 3% NaCl solution was investigated by the electrochemical measurements. It indicates that AH inhibits the corrosion of AA6061 alloy and acts as an anodic inhibitor. Maximum inhibition efficiency reaches 74.3% at the concentration of 1 × 10?4 mol.l?1 AH. The results of the electrochemical studies reveal AH is physically adsorbed on the AA6061 alloy surface and the adsorption follows Langmuir isotherm. The combination of AH and CG enhances the inhibition efficiency to 95.9%. The enhanced inhibition is attributed to the promotion of AH adsorption by CG. The mixture of AH and CG is a mixed‐type inhibitor and renders the corrosion potential to more positive values. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
新型不对称双季铵盐缓蚀剂在HCl中对Q235钢的缓蚀行为   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
宋伟伟  张静  杜敏 《化学学报》2011,69(16):1851-1857
采用静态失重法、极化曲线法和交流阻抗法研究了自制的含咪唑啉环不对称双季铵盐缓蚀剂(DBA)在1 mol?L-1 HCl介质中对Q235钢的缓蚀性能,并探讨了其在Q235钢表面的吸附行为.结果表明,缓蚀效率随DBA浓度增加而增大,在25~55℃的实验温度范围内,浓度为2.89×10-4 mol?L-1时,缓蚀效率均在90...  相似文献   
10.
The aim of this study was to develop a fast CE separation method by using multiple short-end injections in a capillary coated with quaternary ammonium chitosan (HACC), in order to determine the iodide content of pharmaceutical formulations. The BGE was composed of 20 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and 11 mM hydrochloric acid, at pH 8. The internal standard used was thiocyanate. Separations were performed in a fused silica capillary (32 cm total length, 8.5 cm effective length and 50 μm i.d.) coated with HACC and direct UV detection at 220 nm. EOF was modified by flushing the capillary with polymeric solution, resulting in a semi-permanent coating of controlled and stable EOF. The EOF was anodic at pH 8. Different strategies, using single and multiple injection short-end configurations, were studied to develop a CE method that resulted in a maximum number of iodide samples analyzed per hour: one plug and flush (Sflush) 35 samples/h, one plug without flush (SWflush) 76 samples/h, four plugs and flush (Mflush) 61 samples/h, and four plugs without flush (MWflush) 80 samples/h. Using the multiple injection configuration, it was possible to inject up to four plugs using spacer electrolytes with good separation efficiency and selectivity. The voltage application time needed to separate the eight peaks (iodide and thiocyanate) with MWflush was only 12s. The method was validated and samples were analyzed using MWflush. Good linearity (R(2)>0.999); a limit of detection 0.4 mg L(-1); intermediate precision better than 3.8% (peak area) and recovery in the range of 99-102% were obtained.  相似文献   
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