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Employing radical bridges between anisotropic metal ions has been a viable route to achieve high-performance single-molecule magnets (SMMs). While the bridges have been mainly considered for their ability to promote exchange interactions, the crystal-field effect arising from them has not been taken into account explicitly. This lack of consideration may distort the understanding and limit the development of the entire family. To shed light on this aspect, herein we report a theoretical investigation of a series of N -radical-bridged diterbium complexes. It is found that while promoting strong exchange coupling between the terbium ions, the N -radical induces a crystal field that interferes destructively with that of the outer ligands, and thus reduces the overall SMM behavior. Based on the theoretical results, we conclude that the SMM behavior in this series could be further maximized if the crystal field of the outer ligands is designed to be collinear with that of the radical bridge. This conclusion can be generalized to all exchange-coupled SMMs.  相似文献   
3.
Human societies are characterized by three constituent features, besides others. (A) Options, as for jobs and societal positions, differ with respect to their associated monetary and non-monetary payoffs. (B) Competition leads to reduced payoffs when individuals compete for the same option as others. (C) People care about how they are doing relatively to others. The latter trait—the propensity to compare one’s own success with that of others—expresses itself as envy. It is shown that the combination of (A)–(C) leads to spontaneous class stratification. Societies of agents split endogenously into two social classes, an upper and a lower class, when envy becomes relevant. A comprehensive analysis of the Nash equilibria characterizing a basic reference game is presented. Class separation is due to the condensation of the strategies of lower-class agents, which play an identical mixed strategy. Upper-class agents do not condense, following individualist pure strategies. The model and results are size-consistent, holding for arbitrary large numbers of agents and options. Analytic results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations. An analogy to interacting confined classical particles is discussed.  相似文献   
4.
本文在不确定理论的框架下,研究一类带背景状态变量的最优控制模型.在乐观值准则下,利用不确定动态规划的方法,证明了不确定最优性原则,得到最优性方程.作为应用,求解一个固定缴费(DC)型养老金的最优投资策略问题,在乐观值准则下,以工资变量为背景状态变量,建立养老金模型.通过求解不确定最优性方程得到最优投资策略和最优支付率.  相似文献   
5.
The mechanisms of CO2 coupling with the propargylic alcohol using alkali carbonates M2CO3 (M = Li, Na, K, Cs) have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The calculations reveal that the target product tetronic acid (TA) is yielded through two stages: (a) the formation of the α-alkylidene cyclic carbonate (αACC) intermediate via Cs2CO3-mediated carboxylative cyclization of the propargylic alcohol with CO2, and (b) the conversion of the αACC intermediate with Cs2CO3 to produce the cesium salt of the TA. Since the overall kinetic barriers for the two stages are comparable and affordable, the excellent chemoselectivity to the TA should be primarily originated from the high thermodynamic stability of the cesium salt of the TA. Moreover, relative to the TA, the possibility to yield the by-product acyclic carbonate can be excluded due to the both kinetics and thermodynamic inferiority. This result is different from the organic base-mediated reaction. Alternatively, our calculations predict that CsHCO3 together generated with the cesium salt of the TA might also be an available mediating reagent for the incorporation of CO2 with the propargylic alcohol. Compared to other alkali carbonates M2CO3 (M = Li, Na, K), the stronger basicity of Cs2CO3 and the lower ionic potential of cesium ion can raise the effective concentration of the αACC intermediate, and thus the conversion of the αACC intermediate into the cesium salt of the TA can be achieved with high yield.  相似文献   
6.
本文用含时密度泛函理论研究了线性Na原子链的表面等离激元机理.主要在原子尺度下模拟计算了体系随着原子数增加及原子间距变化的集体激发过程.研究发现线性原子链有一个普遍的特性——存在一个纵模和两个横模.两个横模一般在实验上很难被观测到.纵模随着原子链长度增加,能量红移的同时,该纵模主峰的强度呈线性增长.随着原子个数的增加,端点模式(TE)开始蓝移,能量和偶极强度都逐渐趋向饱和.横模能量被劈裂的原因概括如下:(一)每个位置的电子受到的势不同,在两端的电子受到的势要比在中间的电子受到的势要高,因此两端的电荷积累也比中间多;(二)端点存在悬挂键,所以中间的电子-电子间相互作用与端点的不一样,这两方面又都与原子间距d有关.  相似文献   
7.
《Physics letters. A》2019,383(23):2784-2788
By modifying the conventional one-electron hopping behavior, we study effects of an occupation-dependent hopping on the ground state of the half-filled one-dimensional pair-hopping model. At weak coupling, the use of bosonization and renormalization-group analysis techniques helps to derive the phase diagram. Such unusual hopping is shown to drive a spin-gap transition and to introduce a new region where the triplet superconducting instability dominates for positively small pair-hopping interaction.  相似文献   
8.
ABSTRACT

The Coupled-Cluster (CC) theory is one of the most successful high precision methods used to solve the stationary Schrödinger equation. In this article, we address the mathematical foundation of this theory with focus on the advances made in the past decade. Rather than solely relying on spectral gap assumptions (non-degeneracy of the ground state), we highlight the importance of coercivity assumptions – Gårding type inequalities – for the local uniqueness of the CC solution. Based on local strong monotonicity, different sufficient conditions for a local unique solution are suggested. One of the criteria assumes the relative smallness of the total cluster amplitudes (after possibly removing the single amplitudes) compared to the Gårding constants. In the extended CC theory the Lagrange multipliers are wave function parameters and, by means of the bivariational principle, we here derive a connection between the exact cluster amplitudes and the Lagrange multipliers. This relation might prove useful when determining the quality of a CC solution. Furthermore, the use of an Aubin–Nitsche duality type method in different CC approaches is discussed and contrasted with the bivariational principle.  相似文献   
9.
Luca Cimbaro 《哲学杂志》2019,99(12):1499-1514
A unified theory captures both brittle and ductile fracture. The fracture toughness is proportional to the applied stress squared and the length of the crack. For purely brittle solids, this criterion is equivalent to Griffith's theory. In other cases, it provides a theoretical basis for the Irwin-Orowan formula. For purely ductile solids, the theory makes direct contact with the Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden model. The toughness is highest in ductile materials because the shielding dislocations in the plastic zone provide additional resistance to crack growth. This resistance is the force opposing dislocation motion, and the Peach-Koehler force overcomes it. A dislocation-free zone separates the plastic zone from and the tip of the crack. The dislocation-free zone is finite because molecular forces responsible for the cohesion of the surfaces near the crack tip are not negligible. At the point of crack growth, the length of the dislocation-free zone is constant and the shielding dislocations advance in concert. As in Griffith's theory, the crack is in unstable equilibrium. The theory shows that a dimensionless variable controls the elastoplastic behaviour. A relationship for the size of the dislocation-free zone is derived in terms of the macroscopic and microscopic parameters that govern the fracture.  相似文献   
10.
计算了在两个假想的星际航行方案中,与"双子佯谬"相关的时间差别.这种差别体现了惯性与非惯性参考系经历的时间有绝对差异,而不再是"相对"效应.  相似文献   
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