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1.
Phase diagrams exhibiting the extent of cooperation in an evolutionary snowdrift game implemented in different networks are studied in detail. We invoke two independent payoff parameters, unlike a single payoff often used in most previous works that restricts the two payoffs to vary in a correlated way. In addition to the phase transition points when a single payoff parameter is used, phase boundaries separating homogeneous phases consisting of agents using the same strategy and a mixed phase consisting of agents using different strategies are found. Analytic expressions of the phase boundaries are obtained by invoking the ideas of the last surviving patterns and the relative alignments of the spectra of payoff values to agents using different strategies. In a Watts-Strogatz regular network, there exists a re-entrant phenomenon in which the system goes from a homogeneous phase into a mixed phase and re-enters the homogeneous phase as one of the two payoff parameters is varied. The non-trivial phase diagram accompanying this re-entrant phenomenon is quantitatively analyzed. The effects of noise and cooperation in randomly rewired Watts-Strogatz networks are also studied. The transition between a mixed phase and a homogeneous phase is identify to belong to the directed percolation universality class. The methods used in the present work are applicable to a wide range of problems in competing populations of networked agents.  相似文献   

2.
Most previous studies concerning ultimatum games in structured population assume either that the game roles are assigned randomly between linked individuals or that the game is played twice in an interaction, alternating the roles of proposer and responder. We develop a model in which individuals play the role of proposer with probabilities according to the degree. Specifically, players of two types are considered: (A) pragmatic agents, who do not distinguish between the different roles and aim to obtain the same benefit, and (B) agents whose aspiration levels and offers are independent. We investigate the evolution of altruistic behavior in pure populations with two different effective payoffs: accumulated payoffs and normalized payoffs. It is found that, for type B individuals, if the low-degree individuals can act as proposers with larger probabilities, the average value of offers reaches a higher point, irrespective of whether accumulated or normalized payoffs are used for strategy updating; for type A individuals, the two calculation methods for payoff lead to different outcomes.  相似文献   

3.
M. Ali Saif 《Physica A》2007,384(2):448-456
We investigate the problem of wealth distribution from the viewpoint of asset exchange. Robust nature of Pareto's law across economies, ideologies and nations suggests that this could be an outcome of trading strategies. However, the simple asset exchange models fail to reproduce this feature. A Yardsale (YS) model in which amount put on the bet is a fraction of minimum of the two players leads to condensation of wealth in hands of some agent while theft and fraud (TF) model in which the amount to be exchanged is a fraction of loser's wealth leads to an exponential distribution of wealth. We show that if we allow few agents to follow a different model than others, i.e., there are some agents following TF model while rest follow YS model, it leads to distribution with power-law tails. Similar effect is observed when one carries out transactions for a fraction of one's wealth using TF model and for the rest YS model is used. We also observe a power-law tail in wealth distribution if we allow the agents to follow either of the models with some probability.  相似文献   

4.
Dissipative accounts of structure formation show that the self-organisation of complex structures is thermodynamically favoured, whenever these structures dissipate free energy that could not be accessed otherwise. These structures therefore open transition channels for the state of the universe to move from a frustrated, metastable state to another metastable state of higher entropy. However, these accounts apply as well to relatively simple, dissipative systems, such as convection cells, hurricanes, candle flames, lightning strikes, or mechanical cracks, as they do to complex biological systems. Conversely, interesting computational properties—that characterize complex biological systems, such as efficient, predictive representations of environmental dynamics—can be linked to the thermodynamic efficiency of underlying physical processes. However, the potential mechanisms that underwrite the selection of dissipative structures with thermodynamically efficient subprocesses is not completely understood. We address these mechanisms by explaining how bifurcation-based, work-harvesting processes—required to sustain complex dissipative structures—might be driven towards thermodynamic efficiency. We first demonstrate a simple mechanism that leads to self-selection of efficient dissipative structures in a stochastic chemical reaction network, when the dissipated driving chemical potential difference is decreased. We then discuss how such a drive can emerge naturally in a hierarchy of self-similar dissipative structures, each feeding on the dissipative structures of a previous level, when moving away from the initial, driving disequilibrium.  相似文献   

5.
For a large ensemble of complex systems, a Many-System Problem (MSP) studies how heterogeneity constrains and hides structural mechanisms, and how to uncover and reveal hidden major factors from homogeneous parts. All member systems in an MSP share common governing principles of dynamics, but differ in idiosyncratic characteristics. A typical dynamic is found underlying response features with respect to covariate features of quantitative or qualitative data types. Neither all-system-as-one-whole nor individual system-specific functional structures are assumed in such response-vs-covariate (Re–Co) dynamics. We developed a computational protocol for identifying various collections of major factors of various orders underlying Re–Co dynamics. We first demonstrate the immanent effects of heterogeneity among member systems, which constrain compositions of major factors and even hide essential ones. Secondly, we show that fuller collections of major factors are discovered by breaking heterogeneity into many homogeneous parts. This process further realizes Anderson’s “More is Different” phenomenon. We employ the categorical nature of all features and develop a Categorical Exploratory Data Analysis (CEDA)-based major factor selection protocol. Information theoretical measurements—conditional mutual information and entropy—are heavily used in two selection criteria: C1—confirmable and C2—irreplaceable. All conditional entropies are evaluated through contingency tables with algorithmically computed reliability against the finite sample phenomenon. We study one artificially designed MSP and then two real collectives of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitching dynamics with 62 slider pitchers and 199 fastball pitchers, respectively. Finally, our MSP data analyzing techniques are applied to resolve a scientific issue related to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.  相似文献   

6.
7.
Of particular importance for public health is how to understand strategic vaccination behavior in social networks. Social learning is a central aspect of human behavior, and it thus shapes vaccination individuals’ decision-making. Here, we study two simple models to address the impact of the more rational decision-making of individuals on voluntary vaccination. In the first model, individuals are endowed with memory capacity for their past experiences of dealing with vaccination. In addition to their current payoffs, they also take account of the historical payoffs that are discounted by a memory-decaying factor. They use such overall payoffs (weighing the current payoffs and historical payoffs) to reassess their vaccination strategies. Those who have higher overall payoffs are more likely imitated by their social neighbors. In the second model, individuals do not blindly learn the strategies of neighbors; they also combine the fraction of infection in the past epidemic season. If the fraction of infection surpasses the perceived risk threshold, individuals will increase the probability of taking vaccination. Otherwise, they will decrease the probability of taking vaccination. Then we use evolutionary game theory to study the vaccination behavior of people during an epidemiological process. To do this, we propose a two-stage model: individuals make vaccination decisions during a yearly vaccination campaign, followed by an epidemic season. This forms a feedback loop between the vaccination decisions of individuals and their health outcomes, and thus payoffs. We find that the two more rational decision-making models have nontrivial impacts on the vaccination behavior of individuals, and, as a result, on the final fraction of infection. Our results highlight that, from an individual’s viewpoint, the decisions are optimal and more rational. However, from the social viewpoint, the strategies of individuals can give rise to distinct outcomes. Namely, the rational behavior of individuals plays a ‘double-edged-sword’ role on the social effects.  相似文献   

8.
To deeply understand the emergence of cooperation in natural,social and economical systems,we present an improved fitness evaluation mechanism with memory in spatial prisoner's dilemma game on regular lattices.In our model,the individual fitness is not only determined by the payoff in the current game round,but also by the payoffs in previous round bins.A tunable parameter,termed as the memory strength(μ),which lies between 0 and 1,is introduced into the model to regulate the ratio of payoffs of current and previous game rounds in the individual fitness calculation.When μ = 0,our model is reduced to the standard prisoner's dilemma game;while μ = 1 represents the case in which the payoff is totally determined by the initial strategies and thus it is far from the realistic ones.Extensive numerical simulations indicate that the memory effect can substantially promote the evolution of cooperation.For μ 1,the stronger the memory effect,the higher the cooperation level,but μ = 1 leads to a pathological state of cooperation,but can partially enhance the cooperation in the very large temptation parameter.The current results are of great significance for us to account for the role of memory effect during the evolution of cooperation among selfish players.  相似文献   

9.
We study the effect of quantum noise on history dependent quantum Parrondo’s games by taking into account different noise channels. Our calculations show that entanglement can play a crucial role in quantum Parrondo’s games. It is seen that for the maximally entangled initial state in the presence of decoherence, the quantum phases strongly influence the payoffs for various sequences of the game. The effect of amplitude damping channel leads to winning payoffs. Whereas the depolarizing and phase damping channels lead to the losing payoffs. In case of amplitude damping channel, the payoffs are enhanced in the presence of decoherence for the sequence AAB. This is because the quantum phases interfere constructively which leads to the quantum enhancement of the payoffs in comparison to the undecohered case. It is also seen that the quantum phase angles damp the payoffs significantly in the presence of decoherence. Furthermore, it is seen that for multiple games of sequence AAB, under the influence of amplitude damping channel, the game still remains a winning game. However, the quantum enhancement reduces in comparison to the single game of sequence AAB because of the destructive interference of phase dependent terms. In case of depolarizing channel, the game becomes a loosing game. It is seen that for the game sequence B the game is loosing one and the behavior of sequences B and BB is similar for amplitude damping and depolarizing channels. In addition, the repeated games of A are only influenced by the amplitude damping channel and the game remains a losing game. Furthermore, it is also seen that for any sequence when played in series, the phase damping channel does not influence the game.  相似文献   

10.
K.H. Lee  P.M. Hui 《Physica A》2008,387(22):5602-5608
Cooperation in the N-person evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG) is studied in scale-free Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. Due to the inhomogeneity of the network, two versions of NESG are proposed and studied. In a model where the size of the competing group varies from agent to agent, the fraction of cooperators drops as a function of the payoff parameter. The networking effect is studied via the fraction of cooperative agents for nodes with a particular degree. For small payoff parameters, it is found that the small-k agents are dominantly cooperators, while large-k agents are of non-cooperators. Studying the spatial correlation reveals that cooperative agents will avoid to be nearest neighbors and the correlation disappears beyond the next-nearest neighbors. The behavior can be explained in terms of the networking effect and payoffs. In another model with a fixed size of competing groups, the fraction of cooperators could show a non-monotonic behavior in the regime of small payoff parameters. This non-trivial behavior is found to be a combined effect of the many agents with the smallest degree in the BA network and the increasing fraction of cooperators among these agents with the payoff for small payoffs.  相似文献   

11.
A long-standing tradition, largely present in both the physical and the philosophical literature, regards the advent of (special) relativity—with its block-universe picture—as the failure of any indeterministic program in physics. On the contrary, in this paper, we note that upholding reasonable principles of finiteness of information hints at a picture of the physical world that should be both relativistic and indeterministic. We thus rebut the block-universe picture by assuming that fundamental indeterminacy itself should also be regarded as a relative property when considered in a relativistic scenario. We discuss the consequence that this view may have when correlated randomness is introduced, both in the classical case and in the quantum one.  相似文献   

12.
In this treatment of random dynamical systems, we consider the existence—and identification—of conditional independencies at nonequilibrium steady-state. These independencies underwrite a particular partition of states, in which internal states are statistically secluded from external states by blanket states. The existence of such partitions has interesting implications for the information geometry of internal states. In brief, this geometry can be read as a physics of sentience, where internal states look as if they are inferring external states. However, the existence of such partitions—and the functional form of the underlying densities—have yet to be established. Here, using the Lorenz system as the basis of stochastic chaos, we leverage the Helmholtz decomposition—and polynomial expansions—to parameterise the steady-state density in terms of surprisal or self-information. We then show how Markov blankets can be identified—using the accompanying Hessian—to characterise the coupling between internal and external states in terms of a generalised synchrony or synchronisation of chaos. We conclude by suggesting that this kind of synchronisation may provide a mathematical basis for an elemental form of (autonomous or active) sentience in biology.  相似文献   

13.
Active inference is a normative framework for explaining behaviour under the free energy principle—a theory of self-organisation originating in neuroscience. It specifies neuronal dynamics for state-estimation in terms of a descent on (variational) free energy—a measure of the fit between an internal (generative) model and sensory observations. The free energy gradient is a prediction error—plausibly encoded in the average membrane potentials of neuronal populations. Conversely, the expected probability of a state can be expressed in terms of neuronal firing rates. We show that this is consistent with current models of neuronal dynamics and establish face validity by synthesising plausible electrophysiological responses. We then show that these neuronal dynamics approximate natural gradient descent, a well-known optimisation algorithm from information geometry that follows the steepest descent of the objective in information space. We compare the information length of belief updating in both schemes, a measure of the distance travelled in information space that has a direct interpretation in terms of metabolic cost. We show that neural dynamics under active inference are metabolically efficient and suggest that neural representations in biological agents may evolve by approximating steepest descent in information space towards the point of optimal inference.  相似文献   

14.
This paper extends the canonical small open-economy real-business-cycle model, when considering model uncertainty. Domestic households have multiplier preferences, which leads them to take robust decisions in response to possible model misspecification for the economy’s aggregate productivity. Using perturbation methods, the paper extends the literature on real business cycle models by deriving a closed-form solution for the combined welfare effect of the two sources of uncertainty, namely risk and model uncertainty. While classical risk has an ambiguous effect on welfare, the addition of model uncertainty is unambiguously welfare-deteriorating. Hence, the overall effect of uncertainty on welfare is ambiguous, depending on consumers preferences and model parameters. The paper provides numerical results for the welfare effects of uncertainty measured by units of consumption equivalence. At moderate (high) levels of risk aversion, the effect of risk on household welfare is positive (negative). The addition of model uncertainty—for all levels of concern about model uncertainty and most risk aversion values—turns the overall effect of uncertainty on household welfare negative. It is important to remark that the analytical decomposition and combination of the effects of the two types of uncertainty considered here and the resulting ambiguous effect on overall welfare have not been derived in the previous literature on small open economies.  相似文献   

15.
A co-evolving and adaptive Rock (R)–Paper (P)–Scissors (S) game (ARPS) in which an agent uses one of three cyclically dominating strategies is proposed and studied numerically and analytically. An agent takes adaptive actions to achieve a neighborhood to his advantage by rewiring a dissatisfying link with a probability p or switching strategy with a probability 1 - p. Numerical results revealed two phases in the steady state. An active phase for p < p c has one connected network of agents using different strategies who are continually interacting and taking adaptive actions. A frozen phase for p > p c has three separate clusters of agents using only R, P, and S, respectively with terminated adaptive actions. A mean-field theory based on the link densities in co-evolving network is formulated and the trinomial closure scheme is applied to obtain analytical solutions. The analytic results agree with simulation results on ARPS well. In addition, the different probabilities of winning, losing, and drawing a game among the agents are identified as the origin of the small discrepancy between analytic and simulation results. As a result of the adaptive actions, agents of higher degrees are often those being taken advantage of. Agents with a smaller (larger) degree than the mean degree have a higher (smaller) probability of winning than losing. The results are informative for future attempts on formulating more accurate theories.  相似文献   

16.
A local agglomeration of cooperators can support the survival or spreading of cooperation, even when cooperation is predicted to die out according to the replicator equation, which is often used in evolutionary game theory to study the spreading and disappearance of strategies. In this paper, it is shown that success-driven motion can trigger such local agglomeration and may, therefore, be used to supplement other mechanisms supporting cooperation, like reputation or punishment. Success-driven motion is formulated here as a function of the game-theoretical payoffs. It can change the outcome and dynamics of spatial games dramatically, in particular as it causes attractive or repulsive interaction forces. These forces act when the spatial distributions of strategies are inhomogeneous. However, even when starting with homogeneous initial conditions, small perturbations can trigger large inhomogeneities by a pattern-formation instability, when certain conditions are fulfilled. Here, these instability conditions are studied for the prisoner’s dilemma and the snowdrift game. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that asymmetrical diffusion can drive social, economic, and biological systems into the unstable regime, if these would be stable without diffusion.  相似文献   

17.
This paper is a review of a particular approach to the method of maximum entropy as a general framework for inference. The discussion emphasizes pragmatic elements in the derivation. An epistemic notion of information is defined in terms of its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of ideally rational agents. The method of updating from a prior to posterior probability distribution is designed through an eliminative induction process. The logarithmic relative entropy is singled out as a unique tool for updating (a) that is of universal applicability, (b) that recognizes the value of prior information, and (c) that recognizes the privileged role played by the notion of independence in science. The resulting framework—the ME method—can handle arbitrary priors and arbitrary constraints. It includes the MaxEnt and Bayes’ rules as special cases and, therefore, unifies entropic and Bayesian methods into a single general inference scheme. The ME method goes beyond the mere selection of a single posterior, and also addresses the question of how much less probable other distributions might be, which provides a direct bridge to the theories of fluctuations and large deviations.  相似文献   

18.
The simplest model of the evolution of agents with different energy strategies is considered. The model is based on the most general thermodynamic ideas and includes the procedures for selection, inheritance, and variability. The problem of finding a universal strategy (principle) as a selection of possible competing strategies is solved. It is shown that when there is non-equilibrium between the medium and agents, a direction in the evolution of agents arises, but at the same time, depending on the conditions of the evolution, different strategies can be successful. However, for this case, the simulation results reveal that in the presence of significant competition of agents, the strategy that has the maximum total energy dissipation of agents arising as a result of evolution turns out to be successful. Thus, it is not the specific strategy that is universal, but the maximization of dissipation. This result discovers an interesting connection between the basic principles of Darwin–Wallace evolution and the maximum entropy production principle.  相似文献   

19.
What information-processing strategies and general principles are sufficient to enable self-organized morphogenesis in embryogenesis and regeneration? We designed and analyzed a minimal model of self-scaling axial patterning consisting of a cellular network that develops activity patterns within implicitly set bounds. The properties of the cells are determined by internal ‘genetic’ networks with an architecture shared across all cells. We used machine-learning to identify models that enable this virtual mini-embryo to pattern a typical axial gradient while simultaneously sensing the set boundaries within which to develop it from homogeneous conditions—a setting that captures the essence of early embryogenesis. Interestingly, the model revealed several features (such as planar polarity and regenerative re-scaling capacity) for which it was not directly selected, showing how these common biological design principles can emerge as a consequence of simple patterning modes. A novel “causal network” analysis of the best model furthermore revealed that the originally symmetric model dynamically integrates into intercellular causal networks characterized by broken-symmetry, long-range influence and modularity, offering an interpretable macroscale-circuit-based explanation for phenotypic patterning. This work shows how computation could occur in biological development and how machine learning approaches can generate hypotheses and deepen our understanding of how featureless tissues might develop sophisticated patterns—an essential step towards predictive control of morphogenesis in regenerative medicine or synthetic bioengineering contexts. The tools developed here also have the potential to benefit machine learning via new forms of backpropagation and by leveraging the novel distributed self-representation mechanisms to improve robustness and generalization.  相似文献   

20.
We investigate the prisoner's dilemma game based on a new rule: players will change their current strategies to opposite strategies with some probability if their neighbours' average payoffs are higher than theirs. Compared with the cases on regular lattices (RL) and Newman-Watts small world network (NW), cooperation can be best enhanced on the scale-free Barabasi-Albert network (BA). It is found that cooperators are dispersive on RL network, which is different from previously reported results that cooperators will form large clusters to resist the invasion of defectors. Cooperative behaviours on the BA network are discussed in detail. It is found that large-degree individuals have lower cooperation level and gain higher average payoffs than that of small-degree individuals. In addition, we find that small-degree individuals more frequently change strategies than do large- degree individuals.  相似文献   

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