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1.
The direct functionalization of C? H bonds is an attractive strategy in organic synthesis. Although several advances have been made in this area, the selective activation of inert sp3 C? H bonds remains a daunting challenge. Recently, a new type of sp3 C? H activation mode through internal hydride transfer has demonstrated the potential to activate remote sp3 C? H linkages in an atom‐economic manner. This Minireview attempts to classify recent advances in this area including the transition to non‐activated sp3 C? H bonds and asymmetric hydride transfers.  相似文献   
2.
Several ruthenium‐catalyzed atom‐economic transformations of propargyl alcohols with pyrroles or indoles leading to alkylated, propargylated, or annulated heteroaromatics are reported. The mechanistically distinct reactions are catalyzed by a single ruthenium(0) complex containing a redox‐coupled dienone ligand. The mode of activation regarding the propargyl alcohols determines the reaction pathway and depends on the alcohols’ substitution pattern. Secondary substrates form alkenyl complexes by a 1,2‐hydrogen shift, whereas the transformation of tertiary substrates involves allenylidene intermediates. 1‐Vinyl propargyl alcohols are converted by a cascade allylation/cyclization sequence. The environmentally benign processes are of broad scope and allow the selective synthesis of highly functionalized pyrroles and indoles generating water as the only waste product.  相似文献   
3.
We study competitive economy equilibrium computation. We show that, for the first time, the equilibrium sets of the following two markets: 1. A mixed Fisher and Arrow- Debreu market with homogeneous and log-concave utility functions; 2. The Fisher and Arrow-Debreu markets with several classes of concave non-homogeneous utility functions; are convex or log-convex. Furthermore, an equilibrium can be computed as convex opti- mization by an interior-point algorithm in polynomial time.  相似文献   
4.
深化高校"课程思政"改革,是落实立德树人理念,全方位对学生开展思想政治教育的有效途径。本文针对临床医学专业的特点,从教师素养的提高、课程思政内容的设计和学生的课外实践等方面对有机化学教学中实施"课程思政"进行了探索和实践。  相似文献   
5.
The principles of chemical engineering is the foundation of chemical engineering professional core courses. This article introduces the goal and content of course Ideology and politics for principles of chemical engineering course. Ideological education has been carried out on the teachers' quality, knowledge, cases, historical personages, and teaching practice to provide reference for education in science and engineering course.  相似文献   
6.
Direct transformation of carbon–hydrogen bond (C–H) has emerged to be a trend for construction of molecules from building blocks with no or less prefunctionalization, leading high atom and step economy. Directing group (DG) strategy is widely used to achieve higher reactivity and selectivity, but additional steps are usually needed for installation and/or cleavage of DGs, limiting step economy of the overall transformation. To meet this challenge, we proposed a concept of automatic DG (DGauto), which is auto‐installed and/or auto‐cleavable. Multifunctional oxime and hydrazone DGauto were designed for C–H activation and alkyne annulation to furnish diverse nitrogen‐containing heterocycles. Imidazole was employed as an intrinsic DG (DGin) to synthesize ring‐fused and π‐extended functional molecules. The alkyne group in the substrates can also be served as DGin for ortho‐C–H activation to afford carbocycles. In this account, we intend to give a review of our progress in this area and brief introduction of other related advances on C–H functionalization using DGauto or DGin strategies.  相似文献   
7.
A novel series of functionalized 13H-benzo[f]chromeno[4,3-b][1,7]naphthyridines and 1,3-diphenylbenzo[f][1,7]naphthyridines have been synthesized by an efficient regioselective one-pot multicomponent synthesis through intra and intermolecular imino Diels-Alder reaction. In this method, we have achieved complete regioselectivity and atom economy with polysubstituted core motifs in moderate to good yields. The proposed mechanism of this reaction has also discussed.  相似文献   
8.
9.
Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have inherent advantages in pot, atom, and step economy (PASE). This important green synthetic approach has gained increasing attention due to high efficiency, minimal waste, saving resources, and straightforward procedures. Presented in this review article are the recent development on 5-compoment reactions (5CRs) of the following six types: (I) five different molecules A + B + C + D + E; pseudo-5CRs including (II) 2A + B + C + D, (III) 2A + 2B + C, (IV) 3A + B + C, (V) 3A + 2B, and (VI) 4A + B. 5CRs with more than five-reaction centers are also included.  相似文献   
10.
This paper extends the canonical small open-economy real-business-cycle model, when considering model uncertainty. Domestic households have multiplier preferences, which leads them to take robust decisions in response to possible model misspecification for the economy’s aggregate productivity. Using perturbation methods, the paper extends the literature on real business cycle models by deriving a closed-form solution for the combined welfare effect of the two sources of uncertainty, namely risk and model uncertainty. While classical risk has an ambiguous effect on welfare, the addition of model uncertainty is unambiguously welfare-deteriorating. Hence, the overall effect of uncertainty on welfare is ambiguous, depending on consumers preferences and model parameters. The paper provides numerical results for the welfare effects of uncertainty measured by units of consumption equivalence. At moderate (high) levels of risk aversion, the effect of risk on household welfare is positive (negative). The addition of model uncertainty—for all levels of concern about model uncertainty and most risk aversion values—turns the overall effect of uncertainty on household welfare negative. It is important to remark that the analytical decomposition and combination of the effects of the two types of uncertainty considered here and the resulting ambiguous effect on overall welfare have not been derived in the previous literature on small open economies.  相似文献   
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