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1.
3-Methyl-(E)-stilbene (3MSti) and 4-(diethylamino)-(E)-stilbene (DEASti) monomers are synthesized and polymerized separately with maleic anhydride (MAn) in a strictly alternating fashion using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization techniques. The optimal RAFT chain transfer agents (CTAs) for each copolymerization affect the reaction kinetics and CTA compatibilities. Psuedo-first order polymerization kinetics are demonstrated for the synthesis of poly((3-methyl-(E)-stilbene)-alt-maleic anhydride) (3MSti-alt-MAn) with a thiocarbonylthio CTA (methyl 2-(dodecylthiocarbonothioylthio)−2-methylpropionate, TTCMe). In contrast, a dithioester CTA (cumyl dithiobenzoate, CDB) controls the synthesis of poly((4-(diethylamino)-(E)-stilbene)-alt-maleic anhydride) (DEASti-alt-MAn) with pseudo-first order polymerization kinetics. DEASti-alt-MAn is chain extended with 4-acryloylmorpholine (ACMO) to synthesize diblock copolymers and subsequently converted to a double hydrophilic polyampholyte block copolymers (poly((4-(diethylamino)-(E)-stilbene)-alt-maleic acid))-b-acryloylmorpholine) (DEASti-alt-MA)-b-ACMO) via acid hydrolysis. The isoelectric point and dissociation behavior of these maleic acid-containing copolymers are determined using ζ-potential and acid–base titrations, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2015 , 53, 219–227  相似文献   
2.
By using first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the structural and electronic properties of an infinite linear monatomic Cu chain with an adsorbed CO molecule. We find that the bridge geometry is energeticabsally favored not only when the Cu–Cu bond below the molecule is unstretched, but also for a wide range of dCu–Cu up to about 4.20 Å, while the substitutional geometry is favored only in the hyperstretched situation dCu–Cu>4.80 Å. Charge density differences point out the electron transfer is from the Cu atoms to the adsorbed CO molecule. The binding mechanism of CO to Cu chain can be described by the Blyholder’s model, in terms of σ-donation of electron density from the nonbonding CO-5σ orbital into empty metal orbitals and π-backdonation from the occupied metal d orbitals to empty CO-2π orbital. The donation/backdonation process leads to the formation of bonding/antibonding pairs, 5σb/5σa and 2πb/2πa, with the 5σa lying above Ef and the 2πb below Ef.  相似文献   
3.
A typical double photoconductive layer biochip focusing biological cells and forming specific pearl chains has been studied theoretically in this paper. It was composed of two photoconductive layers coated on the bottom and top of ITO-based glass. A light pattern was used to create face-to-face virtual electrodes and the resulting oscillatory spatial electric field was employed to induce the motion of polarizable neutral particles. In order to estimate the behaviors of the suspended particles, a numerical model including dielectrophoretic forces, dipole–dipole forces and other forces, was implemented by means of the Monte Carlo method. The results indicated that steady-state chains could be formed in a uniform electric field owing to the dipole moment effect. In a non-uniform electric field created by the use of a light pattern, the positive DEP force created a more focused pattern of chains. The work concerning the numerical simulation indicated that this chip could form fixed-length particle chains in perpendicular alignment to satisfy the structured assembly of tissues in the histological engineering application.  相似文献   
4.
Reverse Watson–Crick DNA with parallel‐strand orientation (ps DNA) has been constructed. Pyrrolo‐dC (PyrdC) nucleosides with phenyl and pyridinyl residues linked to the 6 position of the pyrrolo[2,3‐d]pyrimidine base have been incorporated in 12‐ and 25‐mer oligonucleotide duplexes and utilized as silver‐ion binding sites. Thermal‐stability studies on the parallel DNA strands demonstrated extremely strong silver‐ion binding and strongly enhanced duplex stability. Stoichiometric UV and fluorescence titration experiments verified that a single 2pyPyrdC–2pyPyrdC pair captures two silver ions in ps DNA. A structure for the PyrdC silver‐ion base pair that aligns 7‐deazapurine bases head‐to‐tail instead of head‐to‐head, as suggested for canonical DNA, is proposed. The silver DNA double helix represents the first example of a ps DNA structure built up of bidentate and tridentate reverse Watson–Crick base pairs stabilized by a dinuclear silver‐mediated PyrdC pair.  相似文献   
5.
The bioconjugation of polyoxometalates (POMs), which are inorganic metal oxido clusters, to DNA strands to obtain functional labeled DNA primers and their potential use in electrochemical detection have been investigated. Activated monooxoacylated polyoxotungstates [SiW11O39{Sn(CH2)2CO}]8? and [P2W17O61{Sn(CH2)2CO}]6? have been used to link to a 5′‐NH2 terminated 21‐mer DNA forward primer through amide coupling. The functionalized primer was characterized by using a battery of techniques, including electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. The functionality of the POM‐labeled primers was demonstrated through hybridization with a surface‐immobilized probe. Finally, the labeled primers were successfully used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were characterized by using electrophoresis.  相似文献   
6.
The aggregate claim amount in a particular time period is a quantity of fundamental importance for proper management of an insurance company and also for pricing of insurance coverages. In this paper, we show that the proportional hazard rates (PHR) model, which includes some well-known distributions such as exponential, Weibull and Pareto distributions, can be used as the aggregate claim amount distribution. We also present some conditions for the use of exponentiated Weibull distribution as the claim amount distribution. The results established here complete and extend the well-known result of Khaledi and Ahmadi (2008).  相似文献   
7.
Common assumptions on the source producing the words inserted in a suffix trie with n leaves lead to a height and saturation level. We provide an example of a suffix trie whose height increases faster than a power of n and another one whose saturation level is negligible with respect to . Both are built from VLMC (Variable Length Markov Chain) probabilistic sources and are easily extended to families of tries having the same properties. The first example corresponds to a “logarithmic infinite comb” and enjoys a non uniform polynomial mixing. The second one corresponds to a “factorial infinite comb” for which mixing is uniform and exponential. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Random Struct. Alg., 46, 117–141, 2015  相似文献   
8.
We consider the uncertain least cost shipping problem. The input is a multi-item supply chain network with time-evolving uncertain costs and capacities. Exploiting the operational law of uncertainty theory, a mathematical model of the problem is established and the indeterminacy factors are tackled. We use the scaling idea together with transformation approach and uncertainty programming to develop a hybrid algorithm to optimize and obtain the uncertainty distribution of the total shipping cost. We analyze the practical performance of the algorithm and present an illustrative example.  相似文献   
9.
In this article, we focus on cyclic and negacyclic codes of length 2p^s over the ring R = Fp^m + uFp^m, where p is an odd prime. On the basis of the works of Dinh (in J.Algebra 324,940-950,2010), we use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to establish the algebraic structure of cyclic and negacyclic codes of length 2p^s over the ring Fp^m + uFp^m in terms of polynomial generators. Furthermore, we obtain the number of codewords in each of those cyclic and negacyclic codes.  相似文献   
10.
A continuous-time Markov chain which is partially observed in Poisson noise is considered, where a structural change in the dynamics of the hidden process occurs at a random change point. Filtering and change point estimation of the model is discussed. Closed-form recursive estimates of the conditional distribution of the hidden process and the random change point are obtained, given the Poisson process observations  相似文献   
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