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1.
Jiangman Liu 《Analytical letters》2013,46(11):1804-1815
A sensitive method for the determination of total chromium in real samples by flow injection–chemiluminescence (FI–CL) analysis was proposed. It was found that the CL intensity from luminol–lysozyme reaction could be markedly quenched, and the decrease of CL intensity was linear with the logarithm of Cr(III) concentrations over the range of 5.0 to 4000 pg mL?1 with a detection limit of 2.0 pg mL?1 (3σ) and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.0, 2.6, and 2.0% for 10, 100, and 1000 pg mL?1 Cr(III) (n = 7), respectively. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min?1, the whole process including sampling and washing could be accomplished within 36 s. The proposed CL method was successfully applied to the determination of total chromium in pharmaceutical capsules, a dietary supplement, and spiked human serum samples, with recoveries from 92.2 to 108.4% and RSDs of less than 4.0%. Using the homemade FI–CL model, the binding constant (K = 4.38 × 106 L mol?1) and the binding sites (n ≈ 1) of Cr(III) to lysozyme were given.  相似文献   
2.
An efficient and sensitive analytical method based on molecularly imprinted solid‐phase extraction (MISPE) and reverse‐phase ultrasound‐assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (USA‐DLLME) coupled with LC–MS/MS detection was developed and validated for the analysis of urinary 4‐(methylnitrosamino)‐1‐(3‐pyridyl)‐1‐butanol (NNAL), a tobacco‐specific nitrosamine metabolite. The extraction performances of NNAL on three different solid‐phase extraction (SPE) sorbents including the hydrophilic‐lipophilic balanced sorbent HLB, the mixed mode cationic MCX sorbent and the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) sorbent were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the analyte was well retained with the highest extraction recovery and the optimum purification effect on MIP. Under the optimized conditions of MIP and USA‐DLLME, an enrichment factor of 23 was obtained. Good linearity relationship was obtained in the range of 5‐1200 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9953. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.35 pg/mL. The recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 88.5% and 93.7%. Intra‐ and inter‐day relative standard deviations varied from 3.6% to 7.4% and from 5.4% to 9.7%, respectively. The developed method combing the advantages of MISPE and DLLME significantly improves the purification and enrichment of the analyte and can be used as an effective approach for the determination of ultra‐trace NNAL in complex biological matrices.  相似文献   
3.
The reduction of a variety of carbonyl compounds was efficiently carried out with NaBH4/DOWEX(R)50WX4 system. The reactions were performed to give the corresponding alcohols derivatives in perfect yields in THF at room temperature. Reduction of acyloins and a‐diketones by this reducing system produced efficiently the corresponding vicinal diols. Also, the reduction of aldehydes over ketones has been accomplished successfully by this system. Regioselectivity of this system was also investigated with exclusive 1,2‐reduction of conjugated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding allylic alcohols in high to excellent yields.  相似文献   
4.
The ring expansion reactions of unactivated alkynylcyclopropanes X‐C≡C‐C3H5 → X‐C=C4H5 (X = H, F, Cl, Me, OMe, NMe2, CMe3) were examined using the density functional theory calculations. All of the structures were completely optimized at the B3LYP/6‐311++G** level of theory. For clarify the effect of the cationic gold(I), we also added AuPH3+ as the catalyst into the system and the structures for Au were calculated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The main finding of this work is that the singlet‐triplet splitting of X‐C≡C‐C3H5 play an important role in determining the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of the unactivated ring expansion reactions. When X‐C≡C‐C3H5 with a smaller singlet‐triplet splitting is utilized, the reaction has a smaller activation energy and a larger exothermicity.  相似文献   
5.
Single‐wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were used as an immobilization matrix to incorporate [Ir(ppy)2(phen‐dione)](PF6) complex onto a glassy carbon electrode for the study of electrocatalytic reduction of periodate ion. Detailed preliminary electrochemical data for the Ir(III)‐complex in acetonitrile solution and for the modified GCE/SWCNTs/[Ir(ppy)2(phen‐dione)](PF6)/CGE are presented. The modified electrode was applied to selective amperometric detection of periodate through its electrocatalytic reduction to iodide at 0.200 V and pH 2.0. The use of amperometry resulted in two calibration plots over the concentration ranges of 1‐20 μM and 20‐450 μM, with a detection limit of 0.6 μM and sensitivity of 198 nA μM?1.  相似文献   
6.
Described herein is a novel one‐pot aqueous synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals has featuring the utilization of Na2SeO3 and Zn(AC)2×2H2O as Se and Zn source, glutathione (GSH) as stabilizing agent and reducing agent. By this approach, the UV‐blue ZnSe QDs with quantum yield (QYs) up to 19% have been synthesized with a molar ratio of Se/Zn/GSH at 1:4:8.5 under aqueous conditions at 110 °C. XRD and TEM show the ZnSe QDs are zinc cubic structure particles with an average diameter of 3–5 nm.  相似文献   
7.
In this study, a method of dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with the flame atomic absorption spectrometry was proposed for the determination of trace Hg using diphenylthiocarbazone as chelating reagent. Several factors which have effect on the microextraction efficiency of Hg, such as pH, extraction and dispersive solvent type and their volume, concentration of the chelating agent, extraction time were investigated, and the optimized experimental conditions were established. After extraction, the enrichment factor was 68. The detection limit of the method was 45 ng mL?1, and the relative standard deviation for eight determinations of 2 μg mL?1 Hg was 1.7%. The results for the determination of Hg in environmental water samples (tap water, well water, mineral water and Caspian sea water) have demonstrated the applicability of the proposed method.  相似文献   
8.
Fe(NO3)3·9H2O is used as an efficient and effective catalyst for the one‐pot three‐component synthesis of highly functionalized piperidines from aromatic aldehydes, anilines and b–ketoesters in ethanol at ambient temperature. This procedure includes some important aspects like the easy work‐up, no need to column chromatography, simple and readily available precursors, and good to high yields.  相似文献   
9.
A facile one‐pot, three‐component protocol for the synthesis of novel spiro[3H‐indole‐3,2′‐thiazolidine]‐2,4′(1H)‐diones by condensing 1H‐indole‐2,3‐diones, 4H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐4‐amine and 2‐sulfanylpropanoic acid in [bmim]PF6 (1‐butyl‐3‐methyl‐1H‐imidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as a recyclable ionic‐liquid solvent gave good to excellent yields in the absence of any catalyst (Scheme 1 and Table 2). The advantages of this protocol over conventional methods are the mild reaction conditions, the high product yields, a shorter reaction time, as well as the eco‐friendly conditions.  相似文献   
10.
Fluorescence probes consisting of well‐established fluorophores in combination with rigid molecular rods based on spirane‐type structures were investigated with respect to their fluorescence properties under different solvent conditions. The attachment of the dyes was accomplished by 1,3‐dipolar cycloaddition between alkynes and azides (‘clickreaction) and is a prime example for a novel class of sensor constructs. Especially, the attachment of two (different) fluorophores on opposite sides of the molecular rods paves the way to new sensor systems with less bulky (compared to the conventional DNA‐ or protein‐based concepts), nevertheless rigid spacer constructs, e.g., for FRET‐based sensing applications. A detailed photophysical characterization was performed in MeOH (and in basic H2O/MeOH mixtures) for i) rod constructs containing carboxyfluorescein, ii) rod constructs containing carboxyrhodamine, iii) rod constructs containing both carboxyfluorescein and carboxyrhodamine, and iv) rod constructs containing both pyrene and perylene parts. For each dye (pair), two rod lengths with different numbers of spirane units were synthesized and investigated. The rod constructs were characterized in ensemble as well as single‐molecule fluorescence experiments with respect to i) specific rod? dye and ii) dye? dye interactions. In addition to MeOH and MeOH/NaOH, the rod constructs were also investigated in micellar systems, which were chosen as a simplified model for membranes.  相似文献   
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