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This paper reports on transient dynamics of electrospray driven by high step voltage and its dependence on voltage rise time. Three rise times (50 ns, 1.8 μs, and 400 μs) were used to compare influence on liquid dynamics. It was found that, when the applied voltage exceeds a certain level, minute differences in voltage rise time significantly affect jet formation time. A rise time of 50 ns accelerates the jet ejection by about 20% compared with other rise times. These results indicate that optimization of rise time may enable drastic improvement of controllability of drop-on-demand electrospray.  相似文献   
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This work presents a detailed study of the photo-induced spin-state dynamics of the photochromic iron(II) complex 1, where the metal ion is in the field of a tripodal hexa-imine ligand with protolysable phenol groups. The nature of the complex’s ground state has been identified as a spin singlet by 1H NMR and steady-state UV/vis spectroscopies, and its distorted octahedral structure was analyzed via crystal structure determination. Sub-picosecond and nanosecond time-resolved laser flash photolysis experiments identify the long-lived quintet state of 1 as the selective product of photoexcitation in the UV/vis spectral region. Thermal barriers of spin-state interconversion as a function of solvent and added base are derived from temperature-dependent rates of transient decay. Ground-state recovery is found to be significantly affected by the solvent and is strongly enhanced, in particular, by base-driven solvolysis of the ligand’s phenol groups. Partial spontaneous deprotonation of the phenolic hydroxyl groups of 1 seems to prevail on metal oxide surfaces, i.e. on alumina. Composite materials, like 1 at Al2O3, that retain the characteristic spectral features of the parent iron(II) complex can be readily obtained by wet impregnation of hydrous alumina with solutions of 1.  相似文献   
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A dual-step cylinder is comprised of two cylinders of different diameters. A large diameter cylinder (D) with low aspect ratio (L/D) is attached to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (d). The present study investigates the effect of Reynolds number (ReD) and L/D on dual step cylinder wake development for D/d=2, 0.2≤L/D≤3, and two Reynolds numbers, ReD=1050 and 2100. Experiments have been performed in a water flume facility utilizing flow visualization, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results show that vortex shedding occurs from both the large and small diameter cylinders for 1≤L/D≤3 at ReD=2100 and 2≤L/D≤3 at ReD=1050. At these conditions, large cylinder vortices predominantly form vortex loops in the wake and small cylinder vortices form half-loop vortex connections. At lower aspect ratios, vortex shedding from the large cylinder ceases, with the dominant frequency in the large cylinder wake attributed to the passage of vortex filaments connecting small cylinder vortices. At these lower aspect ratios, the presence of the large cylinder induces periodic vortex dislocations. Increasing L/D increases the frequency of occurrence of vortex dislocations and decreases the dominant frequency in the large cylinder wake. The identified changes in wake topology are related to substantial variations in the location of boundary layer separation on the large cylinder, and, consequently, changes in the size of the vortex formation region. The results also show that the Reynolds number has a substantial effect on wake vortex shedding frequency, which is more profound than that expected for a uniform cylinder.  相似文献   
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A laser coherent detection system of 1550 nm wavelength was presented, and experimental research on detecting micro-Doppler effect in a dynamic target was developed. In this paper, the return signal in the time domain is decomposed into a set of components in different wavelet-scales by multi-resolution analysis, and the components are associated with the vibrational motions in a target. The micro-Doppler signatures are extracted by applying the reconstruction (inverse wavelet transform). During the course of the final data processing frequency analysis and time–frequency analysis are applied to analyze the vibrational signals and estimate the motion parameters successfully. The experimental results indicate that the micro-Doppler information in a moving can be effectively detected, and tiny vibrational signatures also can be acquired effectively by wavelet multi-resolution analysis and time–frequency analysis.  相似文献   
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We investigate the transport scattering time, the single-particle relaxation time and the magnetoresistance of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaP/AlP/GaP quantum well at zero and finite temperatures. We consider the interface-roughness and impurity scattering, and study the dependence of the mobility, scattering time and magnetoresistance on the carrier density, temperature and local-field correction. In the case of zero temperature and Hubbard local-field correction our results reduce to those of Gold and Marty (Physica E 40 (2008) 2028; Phys. Rev. B 76 (2007) 165309). We also discuss the possibility of a metal–insulator transition which might happen at low density.  相似文献   
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Precise proteomic profiling of limited levels of disease tissue represents an extremely challenging task. Here, we present an effective and reproducible microproteomic workflow for sample sizes of only 10,000 cells that integrates selective sample procurement via laser capture microdissection (LCM), sample clean-up and protein level fractionation using short-range SDS-PAGE, followed by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS analysis using a 10 μm i.d. porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. With 10,000 LCM captured mouse hepatocytes for method development and performance assessment, only 10% of the in-gel digest, equivalent to ~1000 cells, was needed per LC-MS/MS analysis. The optimized workflow was applied to the differential proteomic analysis of 10,000 LCM collected primary and metastatic breast cancer cells from the same patient. More than 1100 proteins were identified from each injection with >1700 proteins identified from three LCM samples of 10,000 cells from the same patient (1123 with at least two unique peptides). Label free quantitation (spectral counting) was performed to identify differential protein expression between the primary and metastatic cell populations. Informatics analysis of the resulting data indicated that vesicular transport and extracellular remodeling processes were significantly altered between the two cell types. The ability to extract meaningful biological information from limited, but highly informative cell populations demonstrates the significant benefits of the described microproteomic workflow.  相似文献   
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