首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10020篇
  免费   1628篇
  国内免费   1592篇
化学   4509篇
晶体学   72篇
力学   1701篇
综合类   9篇
数学   1713篇
物理学   5236篇
  2024年   18篇
  2023年   328篇
  2022年   253篇
  2021年   293篇
  2020年   321篇
  2019年   212篇
  2018年   173篇
  2017年   284篇
  2016年   279篇
  2015年   408篇
  2014年   604篇
  2013年   671篇
  2012年   880篇
  2011年   817篇
  2010年   779篇
  2009年   786篇
  2008年   714篇
  2007年   772篇
  2006年   856篇
  2005年   615篇
  2004年   432篇
  2003年   425篇
  2002年   374篇
  2001年   371篇
  2000年   249篇
  1999年   278篇
  1998年   177篇
  1997年   161篇
  1996年   107篇
  1995年   98篇
  1994年   67篇
  1993年   76篇
  1992年   47篇
  1991年   38篇
  1990年   22篇
  1989年   25篇
  1988年   88篇
  1987年   108篇
  1986年   4篇
  1985年   4篇
  1982年   1篇
  1981年   1篇
  1980年   1篇
  1979年   7篇
  1978年   1篇
  1977年   1篇
  1976年   1篇
  1971年   6篇
  1963年   1篇
  1957年   4篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Sun  J.  Yuan  H. 《Experimental Mechanics》2021,61(3):565-580
Experimental Mechanics - Temperature gradients significantly affect the material fatigue process. A reliable and robust test procedure is needed for quantifying the effects of temperature gradients...  相似文献   
2.
In this paper we consider minimizers of the functionalmin{λ1(Ω)++λk(Ω)+Λ|Ω|,:ΩD open} where DRd is a bounded open set and where 0<λ1(Ω)λk(Ω) are the first k eigenvalues on Ω of an operator in divergence form with Dirichlet boundary condition and with Hölder continuous coefficients. We prove that the optimal sets Ω have finite perimeter and that their free boundary ΩD is composed of a regular part, which is locally the graph of a C1,α-regular function, and a singular part, which is empty if d<d, discrete if d=d and of Hausdorff dimension at most dd if d>d, for some d{5,6,7}.  相似文献   
3.
Cavitation erosion is caused in solids exposed to strong pressure waves developing in an adjacent fluid field. The knowledge of the transient distribution of stresses in the solid is important to understand the cause of damaging by comparisons with breaking points of the material. The modeling of this problem requires the coupling of the models for the fluid and the solid. For this purpose, we use a strategy based on the solution of coupled Riemann problems that has been originally developed for the coupling of 2 fluids. This concept is exemplified for the coupling of a linear elastic structure with an ideal gas. The coupling procedure relies on the solution of a nonlinear equation. Existence and uniqueness of the solution is proven. The coupling conditions are validated by means of quasi‐1D problems for which an explicit solution can be determined. For a more realistic scenario, a 2D application is considered where in a compressible single fluid, a hot gas bubble at low pressure collapses in a cold gas at high pressure near an adjacent structure.  相似文献   
4.
Cooperation is vital for our society, but the temptation of cheating on cooperative partners undermines cooperation. The mechanism of reputation is raised to countervail this temptation and therefore promote cooperation. Reputation microcosmically records individual choices, while cooperation macrocosmically refers to the group or averaged cooperation level. Reputation should be preferred in order to investigate how individual choices evolve. In this work, we study the distribution of reputation to figure out how individuals make choices within cooperation and defection. We decompose reputation into its mean and standard deviation and inspect effects of their factors respectively. To achieve this goal, we construct a model where agents of three groups or classes play the prisoners’ dilemma game with neighbors on a square lattice. It indicates in outcomes that the distribution of reputation is distinct from that of cooperation and both the mean and standard deviation of reputation follow clear patterns. Some factors have negative quadratic effects on reputation's mean or standard deviation, and some have merely linear effects.  相似文献   
5.
Defects play a central role in controlling the electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials and realizing the industrialization of 2D electronics. However, the evaluation of charged defects in 2D materials within first-principles calculation is very challenging and has triggered a recent development of the WLZ (Wang, Li, Zhang) extrapolation method. This method lays the foundation of the theoretical evaluation of energies of charged defects in 2D materials within the first-principles framework. Herein, the vital role of defects for advancing 2D electronics is discussed, followed by an introduction of the fundamentals of the WLZ extrapolation method. The ionization energies (IEs) obtained by this method for defects in various 2D semiconductors are then reviewed and summarized. Finally, the unique defect physics in 2D dimensions including the dielectric environment effects, defect ionization process, and carrier transport mechanism captured with the WLZ extrapolation method are presented. As an efficient and reasonable evaluation of charged defects in 2D materials for nanoelectronics and other emerging applications, this work can be of benefit to the community.  相似文献   
6.
7.
Plasma-assisted flow control is of high industrial interest, but practical applications at full scale require a large surface of interaction. Nanosecond pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) have demonstrated promising results of flow control, but their interacting region is limited to only a few cm2. In this paper, the conditions to extend a surface nanosecond DBD are documented. It is shown that a sliding discharge regime can fully fill an inter-electrode distance of 40 mm. This discharge regime promotes the formation of two hemispheric pressure waves originating from both air-exposed electrodes while an horizontal region of pressure gradient is also observed.  相似文献   
8.
Polysulfide intermediates (PSs), the liquid-phase species of active materials in lithium–sulfur (Li-S) batteries, connect the electrochemical reactions between insulative solid sulfur and lithium sulfide and are key to full exertion of the high-energy-density Li-S system. Herein, the concept of sulfur container additives is proposed for the direct modification on the PSs species. By reversible storage and release of the sulfur species, the container molecule converts small PSs into large organosulfur species. The prototype di(tri)sulfide-polyethylene glycol sulfur container is highly efficient in the reversible PS transformation to multiply affect electrochemical behaviors of sulfur cathodes in terms of liquid-species clustering, reaction kinetics, and solid deposition. The stability and capacity of Li-S cells was thereby enhanced. The sulfur container is a strategy to directly modify PSs, enlightening the precise regulation on Li-S batteries and multi-phase electrochemical systems.  相似文献   
9.
Optimized combination of chemical agents was selected for sensitive electrochemical detection of dissolved ruthenium tris-(2,2′-bipyridine) (Ru-bipy). The detection was based on the chemical amplification mechanism, in which the anodic current of a redox-active analyte was amplified by a sacrificial electron donor in solution. On indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, electrochemical reaction of the analyte was reversible, but that of the electron donor was greatly suppressed. Several transition metal complexes, such as ferrocene and tris-(2,2′-bipyridine) complexes of osmium, iron and ruthenium, were evaluated as model analyte. A correlation between the amplified current and the standard potential of the complex was observed, and Ru-bipy generated the largest current. A variety of organic bases, acids and zwitterions were assessed as potential electron donor. Sodium oxalate was found to produce the largest amplification factor. With Ru-bipy as the model analyte and oxalate as the electron donor, the analyte concentration curve was linear up to 50 μM, with a lower detection limit of approximately 50 nM. Preliminary work was presented in which a Ru-bipy derivative was attached to bovine serum albumin and detected electrochemically. Although the combination of Ru-bipy, oxalate and ITO electrode has been used before for electrochemiluminescent detection of Ru-bipy and oxalate, as well as electrochemical detection of oxalate, its utility in amplified voltammetric detection of Ru-bipy as a potential electrochemical label has not been reported previously.  相似文献   
10.
以高纯ZnS粉末为基质,采用高温转相、扩散,以及表面涂敷工艺,制得了147Pm激发的ZnS:Cu,Cl发光粉。分析了ZnS:Cu,Cl的晶体结构,测量了ZnS:Cu,Cl的激发光谱、发射光谱、发光亮度。其晶体结构主要是六方纤锌矿型结构,激发光谱峰值波长为341nm,发射光谱峰值波长为513nm,初始发光亮度达到312mcd/m2。由激发光谱的峰值波长341nm推算得到六方ZnS晶体的禁带宽度为3.64eV。分析了147Pm激发的ZnS:Cu,Cl发光粉的发光寿命,其发光寿命达到5年以上。还探讨了该放射性发光粉的发光机理。147Pm激发的ZnS:Cu,Cl的稳定发光,实际上是激发过程与复合过程的准平衡。ZnS:Cu,Cl的绿色发光来源于深施主-深受主对的复合发射。实验结果的分析表明,ZnS:Cu,Cl中深施主-深受主之间的能级间隔约为2.42eV。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号