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1.
Human societies are characterized by three constituent features, besides others. (A) Options, as for jobs and societal positions, differ with respect to their associated monetary and non-monetary payoffs. (B) Competition leads to reduced payoffs when individuals compete for the same option as others. (C) People care about how they are doing relatively to others. The latter trait—the propensity to compare one’s own success with that of others—expresses itself as envy. It is shown that the combination of (A)–(C) leads to spontaneous class stratification. Societies of agents split endogenously into two social classes, an upper and a lower class, when envy becomes relevant. A comprehensive analysis of the Nash equilibria characterizing a basic reference game is presented. Class separation is due to the condensation of the strategies of lower-class agents, which play an identical mixed strategy. Upper-class agents do not condense, following individualist pure strategies. The model and results are size-consistent, holding for arbitrary large numbers of agents and options. Analytic results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations. An analogy to interacting confined classical particles is discussed.  相似文献   
2.
A new solvent-free sample preparation method using silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) was developed for the analysis of low molecular weight paraffins and microcrystalline waxes by laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOFMS). Experiments show that spectral quality can be enhanced by dispersing AgTFA directly in liquid paraffins without the use of additional solvents. This preparation mixture is applied directly to the MALDI probe. Solid waxes could be examined by melting prior to analysis. The method also provides sufficiently reproducible spectra that peak area ratios between mono- and bicyclic alkane peaks indicated variations in the cycloalkane content of paraffin samples. Dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons observed during the desorption/ionization process was studied by analysis of alkane standards.  相似文献   
3.
Solvent effects on the electrochemistry and spectroscopic properties of alkyl- and aryl-substituted corroles in nonaqueous media are reported. The oxidation and reduction of six compounds containing zero to seven phenyl or substituted phenyl groups on the macrocycle were studied in four different nonaqueous solvents (CH(2)Cl(2), PhCN, THF, and pyridine) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate. Dimers were formed upon oxidation of all corroles in CH(2)Cl(2), but this was not the case in the other three solvents, where either monomers or dimers were formed upon oxidation depending upon the solvent Gutmann donor number and the number or location of aryl substituents on the macrocycle. The half-wave potentials were analyzed as a function of the number of aryl substituents on the macrocycle as well as the concentration of added pyridine to PhCN solutions of the compound, and these data were combined with data from the spectroelectrochemistry experiments to determine the stoichiometry of the species actually in solution after the first oxidation or first reduction of each compound. The results of these experiments indicate that reduction of the bispyridine adduct (Cor)Co(III)(py)(2) proceeds via the monopyridine complex (Cor)Co(III)(py) to give in each case the unligated cobalt(II) corrole [(Cor)Co(II)](-). In contrast, pyridine remains coordinated after electrooxidation, and the final product was characterized as [(Cor)Co(III)(py)(2)](+).  相似文献   
4.
The site-specific binding of metal ions maintains an important role in the structure, thermal stability, and function of folded RNA structures. RNA tetraloops of the "GNRA" family (where N = any base and R = any purine), which owe their unusual stability to base stacking and an extensive hydrogen bonding network, have been observed to bind metal ions having different chemical and geometric properties. We have used laser-induced lanthanide luminescence and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the metal-binding properties of an RNA stem loop of the GNRA family. Previous research has shown that a single Eu(III) ion binds the stem loop fragment in a highly dehydrated site with a K(d) of approximately 12 microM. Curve-fitting analysis of the broad luminescence excitation spectrum of Eu(III) upon complexation with the tetraloop fragment indicates the possibility of two microenvironments that do not differ in hydration number. Binding of Eu(III) to the loop was accompanied by positive enthalpic changes, consistent with energetic cost of removal of water molecules and suggesting that the binding is entropically driven. By comparison, binding of Mg(II) or Mn(II) to the RNA loop, or Eu(III) to the DNA analogue of the loop, was associated with exothermic changes, consistent with predominantly outer-sphere coordination. These results suggest specific binding, most probably involving ligands on the 5' side of the loop.  相似文献   
5.
6.
N. Gros  B. Gorenc 《Chromatographia》1994,39(7-8):448-452
Summary The rapid, simultaneous, suppressed ion chromatographic determination of alkali, alkaline earth metals and ammonium in highly mineralized waters has been examined using the novel cation exchange IonPac CS12 column. General ability for the determination of lithium, sodium, ammounium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and strontium in concentrations from a few g to several mg per liter was studied. The relative standard deviations of retention times of all seven cations were below 0.7% and the relative standard deviations of the measurements of peak areas and peak heights were mostly below 5%. Six natural mineral waters of different types were selected for evaluation of the method. It was not possible to determine lithium in the one run and ammonium usually partially coelutes with sodium precluding quantitative determination. Strontium was undetectable because of the necessary dilutions. All the reltionships between peak areas and concentrations or peak height and concentrations were linear and there was also no evidence of the effect of different matrices on the slope of regression lines.  相似文献   
7.
TheFries rearrangement of different methoxy benzoates has been investigated. Frompara-methoxy benzoates the corresponding hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenones could be obtained in good yields by treatment withLewis acids (especially TiCl4) in nitromethane at 20°C (4-hydroxy derivatives) or without solvent at 120°C (2-hydroxy derivatives). Under the same conditions only demethylation occurs withortho-methoxy benzoates leading to the corresponding salicylates. Small amounts of hydroxy-2-methoxy benzophenones were obtained by treatment with polyphosphoric acid.
  相似文献   
8.
The synthesis, spectroscopic properties, and electrochemistry of six different alkyl- and aryl-substituted Co(III) corroles are presented. The investigated compounds contain methyl, ethyl, phenyl, or substituted phenyl groups at the eight beta-positions of the corrole macrocycle and four derivatives also contain a phenyl group at the 10-meso position of the macrocycle. Each cobalt corrole undergoes four reversible oxidations in CH(2)Cl(2) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate and exists as a dimer in its singly and doubly oxidized forms. The difference in potential between the first two oxidations is associated with the degree of interaction between the two corrole units of the dimer and ranges from an upper value of 0.62 V, in the case of (Me(6)Et(2)Cor)Co, to a lower value of about 0.17 V, in the case of four compounds which have a phenyl group located at the 10-meso position of the macrocycle. These Co(III) corroles strongly coordinate two pyridine molecules or one carbon monoxide molecule in CH(2)Cl(2) media, and ligand binding constants were evaluated using spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. The structure of (Me(4)Ph(5)Cor)Co(py)(2) was also determined by X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: (Me(4)Ph(5)Cor)Co(py)(2).3CH(2)Cl(2).H(2)O, orthorhombic, a = 19.5690(4) A, b = 17.1070(6) A, c = 15.9160(6) A, V = 5328.2(5) A(3), space group Pna2(1), Z = 2, 35 460 observations, R(F) = 0.069.  相似文献   
9.
We describe in this paper simple and robust analytical protocols to determine the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in water, sediment and mussels. For water samples, eight different solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents have been compared and among them, C18 provided highest recoveries and limits of detection of 0.3-15 ng/L. For lyophilized sediments, Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction were compared, and the last one permitted to recover all analytes with highest repetitivity and was validated by analysing a certified reference material. Finally, the analysis of mussels was undertaken using Soxhlet, ultrasonic and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the performance of several clean-up steps are compared. Whereas for the former two, incomplete recovery or losses of some analytes were evidenced, PLE permitted a more efficient extraction and although alkaline digestion was necessary to remove coextracted compounds, the method gave acceptable recoveries and limits of detection of 0.5-7.7 microg/kg dry mass, as for sediments. In all cases, analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and internal standard quantification was performed using five deuterated PAHs. Each method performance is discussed for the three matrices analysed and the paper reports advantages and disadvantages of each for their routine application in monitoring programs.  相似文献   
10.
Dehydrogenation of 10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine (AcrH(2)) by dioxygen (O(2)) proceeds efficiently, accompanied by the two-electron and four-electron reduction of O(2) to produce H(2)O(2) and H(2)O, which are effectively catalyzed by monomeric cobalt porphyrins and cofacial dicobalt porphyrins in the presence of perchloric acid (HClO(4)) in acetonitrile (MeCN) and benzonitrile (PhCN), respectively. The cobalt porphyrin catalyzed two-electron reduction of O(2) also occurs efficiently by 9-alkyl-10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridines (AcrHR; R = Me, Et, and CH(2)COOEt) to yield 9-alkyl-10-methylacridinium ion (AcrR+) and H(2)O(2). In the case of R = Bu(t) and CMe(2)COOMe, however, the catalytic two-electron and four-electron reduction of O(2) by AcrHR results in oxygenation of the alkyl group of AcrHR rather than dehydrogenation to yield 10-methylacridinium ion (AcrH+) and the oxygenated products of the alkyl groups, i.e., the corresponding hydroperoxides (ROOH) and the alcohol (ROH), respectively. The catalytic mechanisms of the dehydrogenation vs the oxygenation of AcrHR in the two-electron and four-electron reduction of O(2), catalyzed by monomeric cobalt porphyrins and cofacial dicobalt porphyrins, respectively, are discussed in relation to the C(9)-H or C(9)-C bond cleavage of AcrHR radical cations produced in the electron-transfer oxidation of AcrHR.  相似文献   
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