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1.
本文用含时密度泛函理论研究了线性Na原子链的表面等离激元机理.主要在原子尺度下模拟计算了体系随着原子数增加及原子间距变化的集体激发过程.研究发现线性原子链有一个普遍的特性——存在一个纵模和两个横模.两个横模一般在实验上很难被观测到.纵模随着原子链长度增加,能量红移的同时,该纵模主峰的强度呈线性增长.随着原子个数的增加,端点模式(TE)开始蓝移,能量和偶极强度都逐渐趋向饱和.横模能量被劈裂的原因概括如下:(一)每个位置的电子受到的势不同,在两端的电子受到的势要比在中间的电子受到的势要高,因此两端的电荷积累也比中间多;(二)端点存在悬挂键,所以中间的电子-电子间相互作用与端点的不一样,这两方面又都与原子间距d有关.  相似文献   
2.
Cavitation erosion is caused in solids exposed to strong pressure waves developing in an adjacent fluid field. The knowledge of the transient distribution of stresses in the solid is important to understand the cause of damaging by comparisons with breaking points of the material. The modeling of this problem requires the coupling of the models for the fluid and the solid. For this purpose, we use a strategy based on the solution of coupled Riemann problems that has been originally developed for the coupling of 2 fluids. This concept is exemplified for the coupling of a linear elastic structure with an ideal gas. The coupling procedure relies on the solution of a nonlinear equation. Existence and uniqueness of the solution is proven. The coupling conditions are validated by means of quasi‐1D problems for which an explicit solution can be determined. For a more realistic scenario, a 2D application is considered where in a compressible single fluid, a hot gas bubble at low pressure collapses in a cold gas at high pressure near an adjacent structure.  相似文献   
3.
传统量子系统的哈密顿是自伴算子,哈密顿的自伴性不仅保证系统遵循酉演化和保持概率守恒,而且也保证了它自身具有实的能量本征值,这类系统称为自伴量子系统.然而,确实存在一些物理系统(如PT-对称量子系统),其哈密顿不是自伴的,这类系统称为非自伴量子系统.为了深入研究PT-对称量子系统,并考虑到算子PT的共轭线性性,首先讨论了共轭线性算子的一些性质,包括它们的矩阵表示和谱结构等;其次,分别研究了具有共轭线性对称性和完整共轭线性对称性的线性算子,通过它们的矩阵表示,给出了共轭线性对称性和完整共轭线性对称性的等价刻画;作为应用,得到了关于PT-对称及完整PT-对称算子的一些有趣性质,并通过一些具体例子,说明了完整PT-对称性对张量积运算不具有封闭性,同时说明了完整PT-对称性既不是哈密顿算子在某个正定内积下自伴的充分条件,也不是必要条件.  相似文献   
4.
Electrospun nonwovens of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and linear ladder-like poly(silsesquioxane) with methoxycarbonyl side groups (LPSQ-COOMe) were obtained. MWCNT and LPSQ-COOMe were added to the polymer solution before the electrospinning. In addition, nonwovens of PLLA grafted to modified MWCNT were electrospun. All modified nonwovens exhibited higher tensile strength than the neat PLA nonwoven. The addition of 10 wt.% of LPSQ-COOMe and 0.1 wt.% of MWCNT to PLLA increased the tensile strength of the nonwovens 2.4 times, improving also the elongation at the maximum stress.  相似文献   
5.
In this paper, we study the local linear convergence properties of a versatile class of Primal–Dual splitting methods for minimizing composite non-smooth convex optimization problems. Under the assumption that the non-smooth components of the problem are partly smooth relative to smooth manifolds, we present a unified local convergence analysis framework for these methods. More precisely, in our framework, we first show that (i) the sequences generated by Primal–Dual splitting methods identify a pair of primal and dual smooth manifolds in a finite number of iterations, and then (ii) enter a local linear convergence regime, which is characterized based on the structure of the underlying active smooth manifolds. We also show how our results for Primal–Dual splitting can be specialized to cover existing ones on Forward–Backward splitting and Douglas–Rachford splitting/ADMM (alternating direction methods of multipliers). Moreover, based on these obtained local convergence analysis result, several practical acceleration techniques are discussed. To exemplify the usefulness of the obtained result, we consider several concrete numerical experiments arising from fields including signal/image processing, inverse problems and machine learning. The demonstration not only verifies the local linear convergence behaviour of Primal–Dual splitting methods, but also the insights on how to accelerate them in practice.  相似文献   
6.
Supramolecular polyurethane ureas are expected to have superior mechanical properties primarily due to the reversible, noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding interactions. We synthesized polyurethane prepolymers from small molecular weight of poly(tetramethylene ether)glycol and isophorone diisocyanates, which were end capped with propylamine to synthesize polyurethane ureas with high contents of urea and urethane groups for hydrogen‐bonding formations to facilitate self‐healing. The effects of polyurethane urea molecular weight (3000 ≤ Mn ≤ 9000), crosslinking, and cutting direction were studied in terms of thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties with an emphasis on the self‐healing efficiency. It was found that the thermal self‐healability was more pronounced as the molecular weight of polyurethane urea decreased, showing a maximum of more than 96% with 3000 Mn when the sample was cut along the stretch direction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015 , 53, 468–474  相似文献   
7.
8.
We consider the large sparse symmetric linear systems of equations that arise in the solution of weak constraint four‐dimensional variational data assimilation, a method of high interest for numerical weather prediction. These systems can be written as saddle point systems with a 3 × 3 block structure but block eliminations can be performed to reduce them to saddle point systems with a 2 × 2 block structure, or further to symmetric positive definite systems. In this article, we analyse how sensitive the spectra of these matrices are to the number of observations of the underlying dynamical system. We also obtain bounds on the eigenvalues of the matrices. Numerical experiments are used to confirm the theoretical analysis and bounds.  相似文献   
9.
Parallel preconditioners are presented for the solution of general linear systems of equations. The computation of these preconditioners is achieved by orthogonal projections related to the Frobenius inner product. So, minM∈??AM?IF and matrix M0∈?? corresponding to this minimum (?? being any vectorial subspace of ??n(?)) are explicitly computed using accumulative formulae in order to reduce computational cost when subspace ?? is extended to another one containing it. Every step, the computation is carried out taking advantage of the previous one, what considerably reduces the amount of work. These general results are illustrated with the subspace of matrices M such that AM is symmetric. The main application is developed for the subspace of matrices with a given sparsity pattern which may be constructed iteratively by augmenting the set of non‐zero entries in each column. Finally, the effectiveness of the sparse preconditioners is illustrated with some numerical experiments. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
SPECTRUM-PRESERVING ELEMENTARY OPERATORS ON B(X)   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
1.IntroductionLetXbeaninfinitedimensionalcomplexBanachspaceandB(X)theBanachalgebraofallboundedlinearoperatorsonX.ForTEB(X),a(T),asusual,willdenotethespectrumofT.Let4bealinearmapfromB(X)intoitself.4isspectrum-preservingifa(di(T))=a(T)forallTEB(X);4isspectrum-compressingifa(4(T))ga(T)forallTEB(X).Itisclearthatif4isunital(i.e.,ac(I)=I),thenacisspectrum-preserving(spectrum-compressing)ifandonlyif4preservesinvertibilityinbothdirections(preservesinvertibility),i.e.,4(T)isinvertibleifando…  相似文献   
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