首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   17328篇
  免费   1626篇
  国内免费   4494篇
化学   15330篇
晶体学   422篇
力学   626篇
综合类   190篇
数学   3280篇
物理学   3600篇
  2024年   13篇
  2023年   164篇
  2022年   221篇
  2021年   497篇
  2020年   466篇
  2019年   388篇
  2018年   419篇
  2017年   516篇
  2016年   597篇
  2015年   482篇
  2014年   824篇
  2013年   1427篇
  2012年   1639篇
  2011年   981篇
  2010年   895篇
  2009年   1111篇
  2008年   1259篇
  2007年   1349篇
  2006年   1161篇
  2005年   1131篇
  2004年   1015篇
  2003年   882篇
  2002年   715篇
  2001年   575篇
  2000年   575篇
  1999年   542篇
  1998年   474篇
  1997年   433篇
  1996年   378篇
  1995年   393篇
  1994年   344篇
  1993年   262篇
  1992年   309篇
  1991年   227篇
  1990年   180篇
  1989年   137篇
  1988年   103篇
  1987年   74篇
  1986年   77篇
  1985年   67篇
  1984年   45篇
  1983年   21篇
  1982年   29篇
  1981年   16篇
  1980年   8篇
  1979年   3篇
  1978年   5篇
  1977年   5篇
  1972年   2篇
  1936年   2篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Parabolic subgroups are the building blocks of Artin groups. This paper extends previous results of Cumplido, Gebhardt, Gonzales-Meneses and Wiest, known only for parabolic subgroups of finite type Artin groups, to parabolic subgroups of FC-type Artin groups. We show that the class of finite type parabolic subgroups is closed under intersection. We also study an analog of the curve complex for mapping class group constructed by Cumplido et al. using parabolic subgroups. We extend the construction of this complex, called the complex of parabolic subgroups, to FC-type Artin groups. We show that this simplicial complex is, in most cases, infinite diameter and conjecture that it is δ-hyperbolic.  相似文献   
2.
3.
Human societies are characterized by three constituent features, besides others. (A) Options, as for jobs and societal positions, differ with respect to their associated monetary and non-monetary payoffs. (B) Competition leads to reduced payoffs when individuals compete for the same option as others. (C) People care about how they are doing relatively to others. The latter trait—the propensity to compare one’s own success with that of others—expresses itself as envy. It is shown that the combination of (A)–(C) leads to spontaneous class stratification. Societies of agents split endogenously into two social classes, an upper and a lower class, when envy becomes relevant. A comprehensive analysis of the Nash equilibria characterizing a basic reference game is presented. Class separation is due to the condensation of the strategies of lower-class agents, which play an identical mixed strategy. Upper-class agents do not condense, following individualist pure strategies. The model and results are size-consistent, holding for arbitrary large numbers of agents and options. Analytic results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations. An analogy to interacting confined classical particles is discussed.  相似文献   
4.
本文合成了配合物[Cu(pcba)2·(phen)(H2O)] (pcba =对氯苯甲酸,phen = 1,10-邻菲罗啉),该配合物属于三斜晶系,P1空间群,晶胞参数为a=0.790 98(2) nm,b=1.072 40(4) nm,c=1.487 19(6) nm,α=100.613(3)°,β=95.239(3)°,γ=108.334(3)°,Z=2,Dc=1.638 g·cm-3,F(000)=582,最终结构残差因子R1=0.035 9,wR2=0.089 1。采用紫外及荧光研究了配合物和人血清蛋白(HSA)的相互作用方式。结果表明,配合物静态猝灭HSA荧光,可求得配合物与HSA的猝灭常数Ksv=2.35×105 L·mol-1,猝灭速率常数Kq=2.35×1013 L·mol-1·s-1,结合常数为Ka=2.14×1013 L·mol-1,结合位点n=2.37。同时,研究了配合物对胃癌细胞A549、宫颈癌细胞Hela和肝癌细胞HepG2的抗增殖能力。  相似文献   
5.
黄瑞琴  王胜  刘峥  唐群  魏润芝 《人工晶体学报》2022,51(11):1944-1951
将有机物2,5-二溴对苯二甲酸(H2L1)和2,2′-联吡啶(L2)作为双配体,使用溶剂热法和七水合硫酸锌(ZnSO4·7H2O)、六水合硝酸钴(Co(NO3)2·6H2O)分别反应,得到配合物[Zn(L1)(L2)(H2O)]n(1)和配合物[Co(L1)(L2)(H2O)]n(2)。采用单晶X射线衍射、元素分析、红外光谱、紫外光谱、荧光光谱、热重分析等测试方法对这两种物质进行分析研究。单晶测试结果表明配合物1是单斜晶系,以Zn2+配位连接L2-1与L2形成一维链状结构,各条链在分子间氢键和π…π共轭作用下有规律地堆叠形成三维网络结构。配合物2是三斜晶系,Co1离子和Co1i离子由H2L1上的羧酸氧原子O4和O4i连接,形成双齿螯合的配位结构单元,以Co2+配位连接 L2-1和L2形成二维网格结构,各层在O—H…O分子间氢键和范德瓦耳斯力作用下有规律的堆叠形成三维网络结构。配合物1和2均含有芳香杂环、羧基杂环和氮杂环,具有良好的荧光性质和热稳定性,最大发射波长分别为345 nm和333 nm。  相似文献   
6.
7.
In this work, a vanillin complex is immobilized onto MCM-41 and characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and BET techniques. This supported Schiff base complex was found to be an efficient and recoverable catalyst for the chemoselective oxidation of sulfides into sulfoxides and thiols into their corresponding disulfides (using hydrogen peroxide as a green oxidant) and also a suitable catalyst for the preparation of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives in water at 90°C. Using this protocol, we show that a variety of disulfides, sulfoxides, and 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives can be synthesized in green conditions. The catalyst can be recovered and recycled for further reactions without appreciable loss of catalytic performance.  相似文献   
8.
Oxidation catalysis is used to increase the performance of hydrogen peroxide in laundry bleach applications. Bleach catalysts provide cost‐effective, energy‐saving and environmentally friendly bleach systems yielding perfect stain removal at lower temperatures. This comparative study is based on the synthesis of bis[bis(salicylhydrazonephenoxy)manganese(III)] phthalocyaninatozinc(II) ( 2 ), bis[bis(salicylhydrazonephenoxy)cobalt(III)] phthalocyaninatozinc(II) ( 3 ) and bis[bis(salicylhydrazonephenoxy)iron(III)] phthalocyaninatozinc(II) ( 4 ) as tri‐nuclear complexes consisting of two Schiff base complexes substituting a zinc phthalocyanine. Complexion on the periphery to obtain complexes 2 , 3 , 4 was performed through the reaction of a Schiff base‐substituted phthalocyanine using MnCl2?4H2O, CoCl2?6H2O or FeCl3?6H2O salts in basic condition in dimethylformamide. Fourier transform infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV–visible, inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectra were applied to characterize the prepared compounds. The bleach performances of the three phthalocyanine compounds 2 , 3 , 4 were examined by the degradation of morin as hydrophilic dye. The degradation progress in the presence of catalysts 2 , 3 , 4 /H2O2 combination in aqueous solution was investigated using an online spectrophotometric method. It was found that the catalysts 2 , 3 , 4 exhibited better bleaching performance at 25 °C than tetraactylethylethylenediamine as bleach activator used in powder detergent formulations for stain removal. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号