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1.
Human societies are characterized by three constituent features, besides others. (A) Options, as for jobs and societal positions, differ with respect to their associated monetary and non-monetary payoffs. (B) Competition leads to reduced payoffs when individuals compete for the same option as others. (C) People care about how they are doing relatively to others. The latter trait—the propensity to compare one’s own success with that of others—expresses itself as envy. It is shown that the combination of (A)–(C) leads to spontaneous class stratification. Societies of agents split endogenously into two social classes, an upper and a lower class, when envy becomes relevant. A comprehensive analysis of the Nash equilibria characterizing a basic reference game is presented. Class separation is due to the condensation of the strategies of lower-class agents, which play an identical mixed strategy. Upper-class agents do not condense, following individualist pure strategies. The model and results are size-consistent, holding for arbitrary large numbers of agents and options. Analytic results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations. An analogy to interacting confined classical particles is discussed.  相似文献   
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3.
In 1976 S. Hawking claimed that “Because part of the information about the state of the system is lost down the hole, the final situation is represented by a density matrix rather than a pure quantum state”. 1 This was the starting point of the popular “black hole (BH) information paradox”.  相似文献   
4.
随着光伏行业的快速发展, 对硅单晶的品质和长晶装备的稳定性的要求也不断提高。直拉法是生产硅单晶的主要方法,通过提高单晶炉副室的高度以扩大单晶硅的生产规模。由于副室高度的大幅增加,且单晶炉提拉头质心相对于旋转轴心有一定距离,对单晶炉整体稳定性有较大影响,从而降低了单晶硅的生产质量。针对此问题,对单晶炉建立可靠的力学分析模型,采用数值仿真方法,对单晶炉整体进行动力学响应分析,计算得到副室高度增加后的单晶炉工作时中钨丝绳下端晶棒的运动规律以及最大摆动幅度,为改进设计提供依据。数值仿真分析表明提高单晶炉副室高度后,提拉头较大的质心偏心是单晶炉提拉系统发生摆动的主要原因。在此基础上提出在提拉头上添加质心调节装置,通过控制系统调节可保证提拉头质心位置在旋转轴线上以降低提拉系统的摆动。  相似文献   
5.
The structure and rotational barrier for the mesityl-silicon bond of 2,2-dimesityl-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyltrisilane have been investigated by 1H- and 13C-variable temperature nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as well as by density functional theory structural calculations. The calculations show that the lowest energy structure has C2 symmetry with nonequivalent ortho methyl groups, consistent with the crystal structure and solution NMR. The nonequivalent ortho methyl groups exchange through a Cs transition state with a calculated relative free energy of 11.0 kcal mol−1. The barrier for this rotation found by dynamic NMR is 13.4 ± 0.2 kcal mol−1 at 298 K.  相似文献   
6.
The accumulated knowledge regarding molecular architectures is based on established, reliable, and accessible analytical tools that provide robust structural and functional information on assemblies. However, both the dynamicity and low population of noncovalently interacting moieties within studied molecular systems limit the efficiency and accuracy of traditional methods. Herein, the use of a saturation transfer-based NMR approach to study the dynamic binding characteristics of an anion to a series of synthetic receptors derived from bambusuril macrocycles is demonstrated. The exchange rates of BF4 are mediated by the side chains on the receptor (100 s−1<kex<5000 s−1), which play a critical role in receptor-anion binding dynamics. The signal amplification obtained with this approach allows for the identification of different types of intermolecular interactions between the receptor and the anion, something that could not have been detected by techniques hitherto used to study molecular assemblies. These findings, which are supported by a computational molecular dynamic study, demonstrate the uniqueness and added value of this NMR method.  相似文献   
7.
Nonclassical light states are important for both conceptual and practical reasons: they are basic ingredients in testing and exploring quantum foundations, and are crucial resources in quantum technologies. Various useful criteria have been developed to detect nonclassicality in the literature, and several meaningful measures of nonclassicality have been introduced and measured experimentally. In this work, by use of a non-Hermitian generalization of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information and playing with operator ordering in evaluating average photon number, we develop a novel family of criteria for detecting nonclassicality of light based on Lieb's concavity, which is a deep and powerful result concerning interaction between quantum states and observables. We elucidate the information-theoretic as well as the physical meaning of the criteria, and illustrate their effectiveness in capturing and quantifying nonclassicality of various important light states.  相似文献   
8.
采用DIS数字信息化系统,对不同浓度的蓝墨水溶液在激光光源照射下的透射平均照度及照度分布图像进行实验研究,得到了平均照度值随溶液浓度变化的规律。对不同颜色塑料膜片对白炽灯光源透过照度值及照度分布图像进行实验研究得到及其相关之规律。  相似文献   
9.
In this paper, we consider a viscoelastic wave equation of variable coefficients in the presence of past history with nonlinear damping and delay in the internal feedback and dynamic boundary conditions. Under suitable assumptions, we establish an explicit and general decay rate result without imposing restrictive assumption on the behavior of the relaxation function at infinity by Riemannian geometry method and Lyapunov functional method.  相似文献   
10.
电路过渡过程所列方程是微分方程,本文中采用的是方框图模型分析法,即将微分方程的复杂示解分解成最基本的加(减)、乘(除)、积分(微分)、增益等运算,采用VB设计用户界面产进行计算,并给出了一算例。  相似文献   
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