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1.
Parabolic subgroups are the building blocks of Artin groups. This paper extends previous results of Cumplido, Gebhardt, Gonzales-Meneses and Wiest, known only for parabolic subgroups of finite type Artin groups, to parabolic subgroups of FC-type Artin groups. We show that the class of finite type parabolic subgroups is closed under intersection. We also study an analog of the curve complex for mapping class group constructed by Cumplido et al. using parabolic subgroups. We extend the construction of this complex, called the complex of parabolic subgroups, to FC-type Artin groups. We show that this simplicial complex is, in most cases, infinite diameter and conjecture that it is δ-hyperbolic.  相似文献   
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Human societies are characterized by three constituent features, besides others. (A) Options, as for jobs and societal positions, differ with respect to their associated monetary and non-monetary payoffs. (B) Competition leads to reduced payoffs when individuals compete for the same option as others. (C) People care about how they are doing relatively to others. The latter trait—the propensity to compare one’s own success with that of others—expresses itself as envy. It is shown that the combination of (A)–(C) leads to spontaneous class stratification. Societies of agents split endogenously into two social classes, an upper and a lower class, when envy becomes relevant. A comprehensive analysis of the Nash equilibria characterizing a basic reference game is presented. Class separation is due to the condensation of the strategies of lower-class agents, which play an identical mixed strategy. Upper-class agents do not condense, following individualist pure strategies. The model and results are size-consistent, holding for arbitrary large numbers of agents and options. Analytic results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations. An analogy to interacting confined classical particles is discussed.  相似文献   
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The health monitoring has been studied to ensure integrity of design of engine structure by detection, quantification, and prediction of damages. Early detection of faults may allow the downtime of maintenance to be rescheduled, thus preventing sudden shutdown of machines. In cylinder pressure developed, vibrations and noise emissions data provide a rich source of information about condition of engines. Monitoring of vibrations and noise emissions are novel non-intrusive methodologies for which positioning of various transducers are important issue. The presented work shows applicability of these diagnosis methodologies adopted in case of diesel engines. The effects of changing various fuel injection parameters was analyzed. Scope of using non-intrusive technique has been analyzed by changing locations of microphone. Novelty of this worklies in exploring signal processing methods for various locations around the engine test set up. Various frequency ranges of contributing noise and vibration sources were identified. Time-Frequency analysis showed the onset of various cyclic. Based on the identification of various frequency bands, it is possible to device suitable filters in order to extract more information.  相似文献   
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In this work, a vanillin complex is immobilized onto MCM-41 and characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and BET techniques. This supported Schiff base complex was found to be an efficient and recoverable catalyst for the chemoselective oxidation of sulfides into sulfoxides and thiols into their corresponding disulfides (using hydrogen peroxide as a green oxidant) and also a suitable catalyst for the preparation of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives in water at 90°C. Using this protocol, we show that a variety of disulfides, sulfoxides, and 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives can be synthesized in green conditions. The catalyst can be recovered and recycled for further reactions without appreciable loss of catalytic performance.  相似文献   
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In this paper, we present an approach of dynamic mesh adaptation for simulating complex 3‐dimensional incompressible moving‐boundary flows by immersed boundary methods. Tetrahedral meshes are adapted by a hierarchical refining/coarsening algorithm. Regular refinement is accomplished by dividing 1 tetrahedron into 8 subcells, and irregular refinement is only for eliminating the hanging points. Merging the 8 subcells obtained by regular refinement, the mesh is coarsened. With hierarchical refining/coarsening, mesh adaptivity can be achieved by adjusting the mesh only 1 time for each adaptation period. The level difference between 2 neighboring cells never exceeds 1, and the geometrical quality of mesh does not degrade as the level of adaptive mesh increases. A predictor‐corrector scheme is introduced to eliminate the phase lag between adapted mesh and unsteady solution. The error caused by each solution transferring from the old mesh to the new adapted one is small because most of the nodes on the 2 meshes are coincident. An immersed boundary method named local domain‐free discretization is employed to solve the flow equations. Several numerical experiments have been conducted for 3‐dimensional incompressible moving‐boundary flows. By using the present approach, the number of mesh nodes is reduced greatly while the accuracy of solution can be preserved.  相似文献   
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Oxidation catalysis is used to increase the performance of hydrogen peroxide in laundry bleach applications. Bleach catalysts provide cost‐effective, energy‐saving and environmentally friendly bleach systems yielding perfect stain removal at lower temperatures. This comparative study is based on the synthesis of bis[bis(salicylhydrazonephenoxy)manganese(III)] phthalocyaninatozinc(II) ( 2 ), bis[bis(salicylhydrazonephenoxy)cobalt(III)] phthalocyaninatozinc(II) ( 3 ) and bis[bis(salicylhydrazonephenoxy)iron(III)] phthalocyaninatozinc(II) ( 4 ) as tri‐nuclear complexes consisting of two Schiff base complexes substituting a zinc phthalocyanine. Complexion on the periphery to obtain complexes 2 , 3 , 4 was performed through the reaction of a Schiff base‐substituted phthalocyanine using MnCl2?4H2O, CoCl2?6H2O or FeCl3?6H2O salts in basic condition in dimethylformamide. Fourier transform infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV–visible, inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectra were applied to characterize the prepared compounds. The bleach performances of the three phthalocyanine compounds 2 , 3 , 4 were examined by the degradation of morin as hydrophilic dye. The degradation progress in the presence of catalysts 2 , 3 , 4 /H2O2 combination in aqueous solution was investigated using an online spectrophotometric method. It was found that the catalysts 2 , 3 , 4 exhibited better bleaching performance at 25 °C than tetraactylethylethylenediamine as bleach activator used in powder detergent formulations for stain removal. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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