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1.
With screening methods in the legal medicine drugs were often detected in autopsy material. In this study the antiarrhythmic and the local anesthetic drug lidocaine could be proved in fifty‐one cases and determined in different autopsy materials. For the first time the comparison of so many distribution patterns of lidocaine in human compartments was possible. A liquid‐liquid extraction procedure, a standard addition method and LC/MS/MS were used for analytics. The measured concentrations in blood were in the therapeutic range or lower. The time between lidocaine application and death was given in twenty‐nine cases. These data were very helpful to estimate and interpret the distribution process of lidocaine between application and death. This time exerted a crucial influence on the distribution of lidocaine in the compartments. Most of the intravenous applicated lidocaine was found in heart blood after a very short time of distribution. Afterwards the highest concentrations were measured in brain. Later the highest concentration was found in the kidney samples or in urine. If the time between lidocaine application and death is known, the results of this study can be used to deepen the knowledge of its pharmacokinetics. If this time is unknown, the circumstances and the causes of death can be better explained. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information‐dependent acquisition scan for the low‐level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data‐processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
This study investigated vitamin K1 (VK1) distribution following intravenous vitamin K1–fat emulsion (VK1–FE) administration and compared it with that after VK1 injection. Rats were intravenously injected with VK1–FE or VK1. The organ and tissue VK1 concentrations were determined using high‐performance liquid chromatography method at 0.5, 2 and 4 h to determine distribution, equilibrium and elimination phases, respectively. In the VK1–FE group, the plasma, heart and spleen VK1 concentrations decreased over time. However, other organs like liver, lung, kidney, muscle and testis, reached peak VK1 concentrations at 2 h. In the VK1 injection group, the liver VK1 concentrations were significantly higher than those in other organs at the three time points. However, VK1 concentrations in the other organs peaked at 2 h. In addition, in VK1–FE group, the heart, spleen and lung VK1 concentrations were significantly higher than those in the VK1 injection group at the three time points, and the liver VK1 concentration was significantly higher than that in the VK1 injection group at 4 h. The VK1 amount was greatest in the liver compared with the other organs. Thus, the liver is the primary organ for VK1 distribution. The distribution of VK1 is more rapid when injected as VK1–FE than as VK1. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
The standard enthalpies of formation of selected ternary half-Heusler type compositions XYZ (X = Au, Co, Fe, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru; Y = Hf, Mn, Ti, Zr; Z = Ga, Sn) were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the half-Heusler compounds (prototype MgAgAs, Pearson symbol cF12, space group F-43m) are, IrMnSn (−29.4 ± 1.8); NiTiSn (−52.6 ± 2.4); PtHfSn (−98.8 ± 3.4); PtMnSn (−55.8 ± 2.6); PtTiSn (−93.6 ± 3.3); PtZrSn (−104.9 ± 3.8); for the B2 compound (prototype CsCl, Pearson symbol cP2, space group Pm-3m), RuMnGa (−26.9 ± 1.7); for the C1 structured (prototype CaF2, Pearson symbol cF12, space group Pm-3m) or the C1b structured compound IrMnGa (−40.9 ± 1.7). Indicative standard enthalpies of formation of the following compounds were obtained, half-Heusler compounds AuMnSn, CoTiSn, IrZrSn, NiHfSn, NiZrSn, PdHfSn, PdZrSn, RhTiSn; Heusler compound (prototype Cu2MnAl, Pearson symbol cF16, space group Fm-3m) RhMnSn; hexagonal compound (prototype BeZrSi, Pearson symbol hP6, space group P63/mmc) PtMnGa and another type of hexagonal compound (prototype RhHfSn, Pearson symbol hP18, space group P-62c) RhHfSn, IrZrsn, RhZrSn. Values were compared with ab initio calculations from AFLOW and OQMD. Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Selected alloys were further annealed to investigate phase transformations and phase relationships.  相似文献   
5.
The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict the viscoelastic material functions of a vinyl ester (VE) polymer with variations in its experimentally obtained material properties under combined isothermal and mechanical loading. Short-term tensile creep experiments were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of the VE polymer, with 10 replicates for each test configuration. The measured creep strain versus time responses were used to determine the creep compliances using the generalized viscoelastic constitutive equation with a Prony series representation. The variation in the creep compliances of a VE polymer was described by formulating the probability density functions (PDFs) and the corresponding cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the creep compliances using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Both Weibull scale and shape parameters of the creep compliance distributions were shown to be time and temperature dependent. Two-dimensional quadratic Lagrange interpolation functions were used to characterize the Weibull parameters to obtain the PDFs and, subsequently, the CDFs of the creep compliances for the complete design temperature range during steady state creep. At each test temperature, creep compliance curves were obtained for constant CDF values and compared with the experimental data. The predicted creep compliances of the selected VE polymer in the design space are in good agreement with the experimental data for all three test temperatures.  相似文献   
6.
Following a recent investigation on the N(2D) + H2O reaction [Homayoon et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3508 (2014)], we report on an experimental and theoretical study of the isotopologue N(2D) + D2O reaction. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments were conducted at a collision energy of 10.3 kcal mol–1. Quasiclassical trajectory calculations were performed on a recent potential energy surface to derive the centre-of-mass functions necessary to simulate the CMB laboratory distributions. Excellent agreement was found. The importance of the channel leading to HON/DON was confirmed. The inclusion of this channel, in addition to that leading to the isomer HNO/DNO, can affect the models considering the coupling between nitrogen and oxygen chemistry in the upper atmosphere of Titan.  相似文献   
7.
The recently introduced multireference equation of motion (MR-EOM) approach is combined with a simple treatment of spin–orbit coupling, as implemented in the ORCA program. The resulting multireference equation of motion spin–orbit coupling (MR-EOM-SOC) approach is applied to the first-row transition metal atoms Cr, Mn, Fe and Co, for which experimental data are readily available. Using the MR-EOM-SOC approach, the splittings in each L-S multiplet can be accurately assessed (root mean square (RMS) errors of about 70 cm?1). The RMS errors for J-specific excitation energies range from 414 to 783 cm?1 and are comparable to previously reported J-averaged MR-EOM results using the ACESII program. The MR-EOM approach is highly efficient. A typical MR-EOM calculation of a full spin–orbit spectrum takes about 2 CPU hours on a single processor of a 12-core node, consisting of Intel XEON 2.93 GHz CPUs with 12.3 MB of shared cache memory.  相似文献   
8.
9.
For the long-range infrared imaging system, the marine atmospheric turbulence degrades seriously the probability of object recognition and tracking. In this study, the angle of arrival fluctuations of an optical wave, which describes the distortion effects of marine atmospheric turbulence on an infrared optical imaging system, is investigated in detail both analytically and numerically. Analytic expressions of the angle of arrival fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak marine atmospheric turbulence with horizontal path, and they consider simultaneously finite turbulence inner scale, turbulence outer scale, wavelength, and aperture diameters. Numerical calculations are conducted to analyze the influence of marine weak turbulence on the infrared imaging. The results are useful for understanding the potential impact of deviations from the terrestrial turbulence.  相似文献   
10.
The prediction of volume fractions in order to measure the multiphase flow rate is a very important issue and is the key parameter of multi-phase flow meters (MPFMs). Currently, the gamma ray attenuation technique is known as one of the most precise methods for obtaining volume fractions. The gamma ray attenuation technique is based on the mass attenuation coefficient, which is sensitive to density changes; density is sensitive in turn to temperature and pressure fluctuations. Therefore, MPFM efficiency depends strongly on environmental conditions. The conventional solution to this problem is the periodical recalibration of MPFMs, which is a demanding task. In this study, a method based on dual-modality densitometry and artificial intelligence (AI) is presented, which offers the advantage of the measurement of the oil–gas–water volume fractions independent of density changes. For this purpose, several experiments were carried out and used to validate simulated dual modality densitometry results. The reference density point was established at a temperature of 20 °C and pressure of 1 bar. To cover the full range of likely density fluctuations, four additional density sets were defined (at changes of ±4% and ±8% from the reference point). An annular regime with different percentages of oil, gas and water at different densities was simulated. Four features were extracted from the transmission and scattered detectors and were applied to the artificial neural network (ANN) as inputs. The input parameters included the 241Am full energy peak, 137Cs Compton edge, 137Cs full energy peak and total scattered count, and the outputs were the oil and air percentages. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to predict the volume fraction independent of the oil and water density changes. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN model achieved good agreement with the real data, with an estimated root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 3.  相似文献   
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