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1.
A detailed understanding of the adsorption of small molecules or macromolecules to a materials surface is of importance, for example, in the context of material and biomaterial research. Classical atomistic simulations in principle provide microscopic insight in the complex entropic and enthalpic interplay at the interface. However, an application of classical atomistic simulation techniques to such interface systems is a nontrivial problem, mostly because commonly used force fields cannot be straightforwardly applied, as they are usually developed to reproduce bulk properties of either solids or liquids but not the interfacial region between two phases. Therefore, a dual‐scale modeling approach has often been the method of choice in the past, in which the classical force field is parameterized such that quantum chemical information on near‐surface conformations and adsorption energies is reproduced by the classical force field. We will discuss in this review the current state‐of‐the‐art of quantum‐classical modeling of molecule–surface interactions and outline the major challenges in this field. In this context, we will, among other things, lay emphasis on discussing ways to obtain representable force fields and propose systematic and system‐independent strategies to optimize the quantum‐classical fitting procedure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
2.
To elucidate the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), we studied the levels of PARP mRNA and protein during the developmental stages of Sarcophaga peregrina. PARP mRNA expression changed remarkably throughout the developmental stages. The level of PARP mRNA (the molecular ratio of PARP mRNA to the total RNA) was highest in unfertilized eggs and that of PARP protein (the molecular ratio of PARP protein to the total protein of the crude extract) was high in unfertilized and fertilized eggs and in 1st instar larvae. During the embryogenesis period, the levels of PARP mRNA and protein gradually decreased. The levels of PARP mRNA during larval and pupal periods became less than about 5% of that in unfertilized eggs. After the emergence of adult flies, the levels of PARP mRNA and protein increased both in female and male flies. PARP activity normalized with the total amount of protein in the crude extract changed in parallel to the level of PARP protein throughout the developmental stages. The biological significance of the drastic change of mRNA and protein levels of PARP still remains to be clarified.  相似文献   
3.
A method was developed for the rapid separation of catecholamines by nonaqueous microchip electrophoresis (NAMCE) with LIF detection, A homemade pump‐free negative pressure sampling device was used for rapid bias‐free sampling in NAMCE, the injection time was 0.5 s and the electrophoresis separation conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the samples were separated completely in <1 min. The average migration times of the epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) were 34.26, 43.81, and 50.07 s, with an RSD of 1.05, 1.26, and 0.89% (n = 7), respectively. The linearity of the method ranged from 0.0125 to 2.0 mg/L for E and 0.025~4.0 mg/L for DA and NE, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9978 and 0.9986. The detection limits of E, DA, and NE were 2.5, 5.0, and 5.0 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries of E, DA, and NE in spiked urine samples were between 86 and 103%, with RSDs of 4.5~6.8% (n = 5). The proposed NAMCE with LIF detection combined with a pump‐free negative pressure sampling device is a simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, miniaturized system that can be successfully applied for the determination of catecholamines in urine samples.  相似文献   
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5.
Es wird eine radiometrische Bandwaage zur Koksaustragsmengen-Messung in BHT-Kokereien beschrieben. Voranstellend werden einige analytische Ausdrücke zur theoretischen Behandlung dieses Bandwaagentyps mitgeteilt. Die Waage zeichnet sich durch hohe Stabilität der Anzeige, durch die Möglichkeit des routinemäßigen Umsetzens von Meßstelle zu Meßstelle innerhalb kurzer Zeit und durch einen relativ kleinen Wägefehler (Meßunsicherheit ≦ 2,9%) aus. Die Signalaufbereitung innerhalb der Elektronik erfolgt durchgängig digital unter Verwendung eines Rechnerschaltkreises.  相似文献   
6.
This paper reviews ways in which radioactive tracer techniques can he used to improve the efficiency of a caprolactam production plant, Residence time spectra and material distributions in different parts of the plant were measured by application of sodium 24, bromine 82 and technetium 99m. The investigations led to improved cumeneoxidators and gave useful informations on the catalytic decomposition of the phenolic tar and the hydrogenation process of phenol. It could he shown that the construction of the lactam extractor must he varied and the results of the tracerexperiments made in the distillation unit contributed to a higher quality of the final product.  相似文献   
7.
On-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography techniques promise to resolve samples that current one-dimensional liquid chromatography methods cannot adequately deal with. To make full use of the potential of two-dimensional liquid chromatography, optimization is required. Optimization of two-dimensional liquid chromatography is a relatively new yet important research topic the aim of which is to predict combinations of stationary and mobile phases, column formats, and chromatographic conditions that maximize resolving power and minimize analysis time. In on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography, dilution-related issues play also an important role and these should be taken into account when developing optimization strategies. In this work, state-of-the-art strategies that support method development for on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography through a rigorous choice of chromatographic parameters are critically reviewed. The final aim is to provide practitioners with a clear understanding of which aspects can be optimized using current on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography strategies (and which ones cannot). In two-dimensional liquid chromatography, maximizing resolving power for a given analysis time and dilution requires optimizing efficiency, selectivity and retention. While great strides forward have been made in the optimization of efficiency-related issues, considerable effort needs still to be made in terms of (1) developing models that can predict the retention factors that given stationary/mobile phase systems can provide and (2) using this information for choosing the two ones that maximize two-dimensional liquid chromatography orthogonality. Because of this limitation, in two-dimensional liquid chromatography, this aspect is typically dealt with a posteriori through examining chromatograms. This review clearly shows that important progress in the optimization of on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography has recently been made.  相似文献   
8.
一体化核磁共振谱仪控制台的软件系统设计   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
提出了一体化核磁共振谱仪控制台的软件系统设计方案,主要包括2部分,一部分是安装在谱仪控制台上的嵌入式Linux操作系统及实时控制软件,另外一部分是PC机上的界面控制软件. 2部分软件之间利用socket网络接口进行数据交互, 采用TCP/IP通信协议,这样既能保证数据传输的可靠性又可以达到较高的数据传输速率. 通过网络通信,该谱仪控制台还可以接受远程操控和系统升级. 该文具体阐述了该软件系统的设计思路和设计方法,对设计的软件系统进行了实验测试,并对实验结果进行了讨论.  相似文献   
9.
基于偏振成像技术的目标探测研究进展及分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
简述了利用偏振成像技术进行目标探测的物理特性,介绍了偏振成像技术的应用优点,概括分析了我国利用偏振成像技术进行目标探测的发展状况,指出了发展中存在的问题,叙述了国外在该研究方向所取得的主要成就。总结分析了基于偏振成像技术的目标探测的研究进展,并对其未来发展方向进行了展望。  相似文献   
10.
Application of hydrocolloids as baking improvers   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Hydrocolloids (or gums) belong to a group of biopolymers widely used in food technology. In the bakery industry, these compounds help to improve food texture and moisture retention, to retard starch retrogradation, and, finally, to enlarge the overall quality of the products during storage. Since recently, some hydrocolloids are being used due to their polymeric structure as fat replacers to obtain low calorie products and to substitute gluten in the formulation of gluten-free breads. This study describes the applications of some hydrocolloids in the bakery industry. Technological effects of these substances for different types of bakery products are also discussed.  相似文献   
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