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1.
ABSTRACT. This paper analyzes a two-stage game, based on the Gordon-Schaefer model of the fishery, to examine the strategic entry-deterring role for effort subsidies in noncooper-ative transboundary fisheries. The game reveals that a country, whose domestic fleet has an effort cost advantage over a rival foreign fleet, may choose to subsidize domestic effort to the point that foreign entry in the fishery becomes unprofitable. Whether the outcome of the game is characterized by foreign entry deterrence or accommodation, and whether it is also characterized by a domestic effort subsidy or a tax, depends on domestic and foreign effort costs and the number of firms in each fleet. The various outcomes of the game analyzed here help to explain the persistence of subsidies in some world fisheries.  相似文献   
2.
Research funding programs are a policy instrument utilized by governments to influence the innovation process. They are usually elaborated, launched and managed by research funding agencies. In order to select the most adequate research projects, agencies often rely on the peer review process.This paper introduces a methodology to support funding decisions based on the peer review process. The methodology involves the use of a multicriteria decision model to support the assessment, evaluation, prioritization and selection of applications, under a multi-step decision-making process, which fits into a strategic management cycle within the agency. The Multiattribute Value Theory, being considered under a Value Focused Thinking approach, provides a basis for the construction of the multicriteria decision model. The good practices in peer review and also a logical framework for program management are considered by the methodology.A pilot study, presented in the paper, involved a retrospective implementation of a peer review process in the context of a program launched by the Ministry for Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications and the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development, in Brazil. The methodology allowed a clear distinction of roles. The agency staff in the role of decision-makers was responsible for making value judgments on behalf of the agency. The experts, in the role of committee members and ad hoc reviewers, contributed with their expertise by providing objective assessments. Such assessments served as a basis for evaluating the applications, characterizing the possible portfolios, and can be considered as data in future program evaluation studies.  相似文献   
3.
People having extreme idealogies affect the process in a region using fear of terror acts, money power, and the word of mouth communication network to change individuals to their way of thinking. This forces government to divert its limited financial resources for controlling extremism and thus affecting development. In this paper, therefore, a nonlinear mathematical model is proposed to study the dynamics of extremism governed by four dependent variables, namely, number of people in the general population having no extreme ideology, number of extreme ideologists, number of isolated ideologists (prisoners), and the cumulative density of government efforts and their interactions. The model is analyzed using the stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. The analysis shows that if appropriate level of government efforts is applied on extremists, the spread of their ideology can be controlled in the general population. A numerical study of the model is also carried out to investigate the effects of certain parameters on the spread of extremism confirming the analytical results.Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
In many parliamentary systems, election timing is an important decision made by governments in order to maximize their expected remaining life in power. Governments can also introduce policy or economic actions to enhance their popular standing and thus their chance of being re-elected. On the other hand, an oppositions’ natural objective is to gain power, and they will also apply controls through their own policies to reduce the governments’ chance of being re-elected. In this paper we employ a dynamic programming approach to determine the optimal timing for governments and oppositions to best utilize their limited resources. At each decision branch, the optimal control is interpreted as a Nash–Cournot equilibrium of a zero-sum political game which, in certain states, admits mixed strategy solutions. We perform a case study on the Australian Federal Election for House of Representatives.  相似文献   
5.
The methodology presented here solves an R&D program portfolio selection problem that arises in critical infrastructure protection and similar security risk reduction problems. It requires priorities to be assigned to the risks, existing risk levels to be assessed, and the effectiveness of alternative risk reduction programs to be estimated. A lexicographic optimization procedure involving mixed integer programming with preemptive priorities is developed and illustrated, and extensions are discussed.  相似文献   
6.
基于随机前沿方法评价了战略性新兴企业的创新效率,并从公司内部治理和外部环境的创新激励视角对战略性新兴企业的创新驱动因素进行了路径分析与识别.通过对2011-2016年389家上市公司的研究发现:战略性新兴企业的创新效率差异较大,而且具有随时间递减的技术进步效应.政府补贴、市场竞争、产权比率、董事薪酬、董事独立性等因素表现出创新驱动效应,高管持股表现出创新抑制效应.此外,国有产权对高管持股的创新驱动具有同向强化作用,对股票流通性的创新驱动具有反向强化作用.  相似文献   
7.
本文选取1999-2004年间中国城市公共交通行业的面板数据,在Cobb-Douglas函数的基础上运用随机边界法对我国城市公共交通行业的技术效率进行了考察,并从时间、地域、交通工具类型和客运规模方面,分析了该行业的效率差异及其产生原因,旨在为该行业的未来发展和管制改革提供决策依据。研究结果表明,我国城市公共交通行业技术效率情况为:近几年虽有小幅上升,但基数总体不高;东部地区技术效率偏高;客运量大和拥有轨道交通的省市的技术效率较高。  相似文献   
8.
We present an application of relational algebra to coalition formation. This leads to specifications, which can be executed with the help of the RelView tool after a simple translation into the tool’s programming language. As an example we consider a simplification of the situation in Poland after the 2001 elections.  相似文献   
9.
Communication of health risk events is a complex and challenging task. The advent of information and communication technology along with the following popularisation and widespread uptake of social media are reshaping the field of risk communication. Guided by key tenets of the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this study developed a causal loop diagram, capturing the perceptions of professionals in health organisations regarding the role of Twitter during risk events. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of the causal loop diagram and its role with rationalising the use of Twitter in risk communication strategies. A key finding of the model is the central role of trust and its interrelationship with other factors during a risk event. A contribution is made to operational research through the novel use of soft system dynamics in risk communication, to risk communication through the investigation of the new medium Twitter and also to research on the Social Amplification of Risk Framework by providing a means through which to operationalise the framework.  相似文献   
10.
考虑政府对众包物流市场采取激励性政策和约束性政策,基于不同的市场结构,以众包物流平台利润最大化为目标,构建政府政策规制的平台最优定价模型,运用最优化方法求解平台最优定价,最后利用数值分析对相关结论进行验证。研究结果表明:在垄断型市场结构下,当政府采取激励性政策时,平台定价随用户间交叉网络外部性的增加而增加;当政府采取约束性政策时,平台定价与政府限制力度负相关,平台定价随政府限制力度的增强而降低。在竞争型市场结构下,当政府采取激励性政策时,平台定价随平台服务差异化系数的增加而降低;当政府采取约束性政策时,平台定价随政府限制力度的增强呈先增后降的趋势。  相似文献   
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