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1.
A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). This method is based on the adsorption of Cr(VI) on modified alumina‐coated magnetite nanoparticles (ACMNPs). Total chromium in different samples was determined as Cr(VI) after oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) using H2O2. The chromium concentration has been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) technique and amount of Cr(III) was calculated by substracting the concentration of Cr(VI) from total chromium concentration. The effect of parameters such as pH, amount of adsorbent, contact time, sample volume, eluent type, H2O2 concentration and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration as modifier on the quantitative recovery of Cr(VI) were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the preconcentration factor, detection limit, linear range and relative standard deviation (RSD) of Cr(VI) were 140 (for 350 mL of sample solution), 0.083 ng mL?1, 0.1‐10.0 ng mL?1 and 4.6% (for 5.0 ng mL?1, n = 7), respectively. This method avoided the time‐consuming column‐passing process of loading large volume samples in traditional SPE through the rapid isolation of CTAB@ACMNPs with an adscititious magnet. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination and speciation of chromium in different water and wastewater samples and suitable recoveries were obtained.  相似文献   
2.
Rapid solvent‐free microwave‐assisted headspace solid‐phase microextraction (MA‐HS‐SPME) coupled with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) was developed to determine synthetic polycyclic and nitro‐aromatic musks in fish samples. Four commonly used synthetic musks, galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) were employed in the method development and validation. The parameters (microwave irradiation time, irradiation power, amount of water addition, pH value and addition of NaCl) affecting the extraction efficiency of analytes from fish slurry were systematically investigated and optimized. The best extraction conditions were achieved when the fish sample 2‐g mixed with 4‐mL methanol and 15‐mL deionized water (containing 4 g of NaCl, pH 2.0 in a 40‐mL sample‐vial) was microwave irradiated at 80 watt for 5 min. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.4 to 1.2 ng/g in 2‐g of wet tissue. The precision for these analytes, as indicated by relative standard deviations, were less than 9% for both intra‐ and inter‐day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 80 to 92%. A standard addition method was used to quantitate these four synthetic musks, and the total concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 23.1 ng/g in various fish samples.  相似文献   
3.
The ring expansion reactions of unactivated alkynylcyclopropanes X‐C≡C‐C3H5 → X‐C=C4H5 (X = H, F, Cl, Me, OMe, NMe2, CMe3) were examined using the density functional theory calculations. All of the structures were completely optimized at the B3LYP/6‐311++G** level of theory. For clarify the effect of the cationic gold(I), we also added AuPH3+ as the catalyst into the system and the structures for Au were calculated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The main finding of this work is that the singlet‐triplet splitting of X‐C≡C‐C3H5 play an important role in determining the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of the unactivated ring expansion reactions. When X‐C≡C‐C3H5 with a smaller singlet‐triplet splitting is utilized, the reaction has a smaller activation energy and a larger exothermicity.  相似文献   
4.
Density functional theory calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6‐311++G(d,p) level to systematically explore the geometrical multiplicity and binding strength for the complexes formed by alkaline and alkaline earth metal cations, viz. Li+, Na+, K+, Be2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (Mn+, hereinafter), with 2‐(3′‐hydroxy‐2′‐pyridyl)benzoxazole. A total of 60 initial structures were designed and optimized, of which 51 optimized structures were found, which could be divided into two different types: monodentate complexes and bidentate complexes. In the cation‐heteroatom complex, bidentate binding is generally stronger than monodentate binding, and of which the bidentate binding with five‐membered ring structure has the strongest interaction. Energy decomposition revealed that the total binding energies mainly come from electrostatic interaction for alkaline metal ion complexes and orbital interaction energy for alkaline earth metal ion complex. In addition, the electron localization function analysis show that only the Be? O and Be? N bond are covalent character, and others are ionic character. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
5.
Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia for elderly people. The main active therapeutic is supported on the increased levels of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, based on reversible inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. This article aims to propose possible inhibitor candidates for AChE, designed from nonisoprenoid lipids of cashew (Anacardium occidentale), and based on several electronic properties. These electronic properties were obtained through B3LYP/6‐311+G(2d,p) calculation level. Principal component analysis reveals that from the set of studied molecular structures a small group is correlated with donepezil, a drug with known biological activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
6.
The effects of Debye plasma on the frequency‐dependent polarizabilities of Li and Na atoms are investigated using symplectic algorithm within the framework of the pseudostate summation technique. Dynamic dipole polarizabilities of Li (2s 2S) and Na(3s 2S) as functions of scaled number density of the plasma electrons for arbitrary plasma temperature are presented. Screening effects on the resonance frequencies are also presented. In free‐atomic cases, our calculated results are comparable with the reported theoretical and experimental predictions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
7.
Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) have been optimized for the determination of five organic booster biocides (Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid, Sea-Nine 211, Irgarol 1051 and TCMTB) in seawater samples. The parameters affecting the desorption and absorption steps were investigated using 10 mL seawater samples. The optimised conditions consisted of an addition of 0.2 g mL−1 KCl to the sample, which was extracted with 10 mm length, 0.5 mm film thickness stir bars coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and stirred at 900 rpm for 90 min at room temperature (25 °C) in a vial. Desorption was carried out at 280 °C for 5 min under 50 mL min−1 of helium flow in the splitless mode while maintaining a cryotrapping temperature of 20 °C in the programmed-temperature vaporization (PTV) injector of the GC–MS system. Finally, the PTV injector was ramped to a temperature of 280 °C and the analytes were separated in the GC and detected by MS using the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The detection limits of booster biocides were found to be in the range of 0.005–0.9 μg L−1. The regression coefficients were higher than 0.999 for all analytes. The average recovery was higher than 72% (R.S.D.: 7–15%). All these figures of merit were established running samples in triplicate. This simple, accurate, sensitive and selective analytical method may be used for the determination of trace amounts of booster biocides in water samples from marinas.  相似文献   
8.
The intermolecular interactions of formic acid (HCOOH) with benzene (C6H6) have been investigated using localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analyses (LMO‐EDA) with ab initio MP2 and several double‐hybrid density functionals. The molecular geometries of five HCOOH…C6H6 complexes and corresponding benchmark total interaction energies at the CCSD(T)/CBS level are taken from literature (Zhao et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 2726). According to the results of LMO‐EDA with the MP2 method, the dispersion energies are found to be as important as the electrostatic energies for the total interaction energies of the five HCOOH…C6H6 complexes. Based on LMO‐EDA with the double‐hybrid density functionals of B2PLYP, B2K‐PLYP, B2T‐PLYP, and B2GP‐PLYP computations, two new parameters for the framework of B2PLYP are extrapolated. These two new parameters are tested with other 10 complexes involving C6H6 (Crittenden, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 1663), and they perform well on predicting the corresponding total interaction energies. Interestingly, these two new parameters for the framework of B2PLYP also perform well on the noncovalent complexation energies database (NCCE31/05) developed by Truhlar's group (Zhao and Truhlar, J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 5656). Therefore, these two new parameters appear to be suitable for investigating the noncovalent interactions, and they are denoted as B2N‐PLYP, where N stands for the noncovalent interaction. This study is expected to provide new insight into the derivation of double‐hybrid density functionals for studying the noncovalent interactions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
9.
Two bilayer thin films with different stacking sequences, Cu/Ti/Si and Ti/Cu/Si, were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering technique. X‐ray diffraction technique was used to measure the crystallization structures, and scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to measured surface morphology. The multifractal spectra f(α)‐α was used to characterize the surface morphology. The result of |q|max ≤ 53 is obtained by multifractal analysis. The shape of the multifractal spectra f(α) ? α is hook‐like for Cu/Ti/Si and bell jar‐like for Ti/Cu/Si. The spectrum width Δα = αmax ? αmin and Δf(=f(αmin) ? f(αmax)) of the multifractal spectra is able to quantitatively analyze the growth and surface roughness of the Cu/Ti bilayer thin films. The surface of Ti/Cu/Si thin film is more uniform and smoother than the film of Cu/Ti/Si. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
We study the deconvolution of the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles of silicon and gallium arsenide structures with doped thin layers. Special attention is paid to allowance for the instrumental shift of experimental SIMS depth profiles. This effect is taken into account by using Hofmann's mixing‐roughness‐information depth model to determine the depth resolution function. The ill‐posed inverse problem is solved in the Fourier space using the Tikhonov regularization method. The proposed deconvolution algorithm has been tested on various simulated and real structures. It is shown that the algorithm can improve the SIMS depth profiling relevancy and depth resolution. The implemented shift allowance method avoids significant systematic errors of determination of the near‐surface delta‐doped layer position. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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