首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10340篇
  免费   2157篇
  国内免费   65篇
化学   1763篇
晶体学   30篇
力学   1709篇
综合类   194篇
数学   5186篇
物理学   3680篇
  2023年   147篇
  2022年   192篇
  2021年   248篇
  2020年   253篇
  2019年   232篇
  2018年   235篇
  2017年   424篇
  2016年   474篇
  2015年   442篇
  2014年   563篇
  2013年   792篇
  2012年   573篇
  2011年   585篇
  2010年   530篇
  2009年   630篇
  2008年   685篇
  2007年   682篇
  2006年   544篇
  2005年   411篇
  2004年   424篇
  2003年   447篇
  2002年   360篇
  2001年   284篇
  2000年   293篇
  1999年   274篇
  1998年   229篇
  1997年   181篇
  1996年   174篇
  1995年   166篇
  1994年   134篇
  1993年   100篇
  1992年   79篇
  1991年   88篇
  1990年   71篇
  1989年   53篇
  1988年   62篇
  1987年   43篇
  1986年   39篇
  1985年   59篇
  1984年   37篇
  1983年   24篇
  1982年   31篇
  1981年   25篇
  1980年   46篇
  1979年   46篇
  1978年   26篇
  1977年   36篇
  1976年   37篇
  1974年   14篇
  1957年   12篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
In Western blotting, a suitable loading control is indispensable for correcting errors in the total amount of loaded protein. Immunodetection of housekeeping proteins and total protein staining have traditionally been used as loading control methods. Direct Blue 71 (DB71) staining—a novel, sensitive, dye‐binding staining method compatible with immunodetection—may offer advantages over these traditional loading control methods. Three common neuroscientific samples (human plasma, human oligodendrocytes, and rat brain) were employed to assess DB71 staining as a loading control method for Western blotting. DB71, CBB, one traditional housekeeping protein, and one protein of interest were comparatively assessed for reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range over 2.5–40 μg of protein loaded. DB71's effect on the reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range of immunoreaction were also assessed. Across all three sample types, DB71 was either equivalent or superior to CBB and housekeeping protein‐based methods in terms of reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range. Across all three sample types, DB71 staining did not impair the reliability and repeatability or linear dynamic range of immunoreaction. Our results demonstrate that the DB71 staining can be used as a destaining‐free alternative loading control method for Western blotting.  相似文献   
2.
In this paper, we discuss an application of the Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) type algorithm to nested risk-averse formulations of Stochastic Optimal Control (SOC) problems. We propose a construction of a statistical upper bound for the optimal value of risk-averse SOC problems. This outlines an approach to a solution of a long standing problem in that area of research. The bound holds for a large class of convex and monotone conditional risk mappings. Finally, we show the validity of the statistical upper bound to solve a real-life stochastic hydro-thermal planning problem.  相似文献   
3.
This paper investigates the problem of trajectory tracking control for quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in the presence of dynamic obstacles and external disturbance forces/torques. More specifically, two new sliding mode disturbance observers are firstly designed to estimate the external disturbances, in which the observation errors can converge to zero in finite time. Furthermore, utilizing the observation information, a new sliding mode surface-like variable-based position tracking control scheme and a novel nonsingular terminal sliding mode-based attitude synchronization control scheme are developed to drive the UAV tracking the reference trajectory with obstacle avoiding. Moreover, the tracking errors of the close-loop control system can converge to zero within finite time by the analyses of Lyapunov methodology. Finally, the numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.  相似文献   
4.
This paper establishes the global existence and high-gain stabilization of a nonlinear axially moving beam with control input at the free boundary. A high-gain controller based on the transverse velocity feedbacks of the moving beam at the free end is designed. The existence and uniqueness of the solution depending on the initial values continuously for the resulting closed-loop system are established by invoking the Faedo–Galerkin approximation approach. Then constructing a novel energy-like function, the explicit exponential decay rate of the closed-loop system is obtained via a generalized Gronwall-type integral inequality.  相似文献   
5.
The aim of this paper is to formulate several questions related to distributionally robust Stochastic Optimal Control modeling. As an example the distributionally robust counterpart of the classical inventory model is discussed in details. Finite and infinite horizon stationary settings are considered.  相似文献   
6.
基于金属-光敏硅组合圆环提出了一种光可调太赫兹超表面,可用于实现多功能的波前操控。该超表面单元由正反两面的结构层和中间介质层组成,其中结构层是开口方向相反的金属环,开口处由光敏硅进行填充。在光照强度较低时,超表面可以将入射的圆极化波转换为交叉极化的透射波;随着光照强度升高,透射波将逐渐被完全抑制。根据几何相位原理,通过旋转金属-光敏硅组合圆环,透射的交叉极化波会携带额外的相位因子,并可实现完全的2π范围相位覆盖。通过合理排列超表面单元结构,可以对透射波的波前实现任意操控。利用提出的光可调超表面,在较低光照条件下实现了高效的异常折射、透镜以及轨道角动量产生器;在较高光照条件下,抑制了其透射效率,可有条件地选择应用功能,表现出较好的灵活性。提出的光可调超表面在太赫兹成像、通信、雷达等方面具有较大的潜在应用价值。  相似文献   
7.
The aim of this paper is to present an online economical quality-control procedure for attributes in a process subject to quality deterioration after random shift and misclassification errors during inspections. The process starts in control (State I) and, in a random time, it shifts to out of control (State II). Once at State II, the non-conforming fraction increases according to a non-decreasing function ψ(z), where z is the number of items produced after a shift. The monitoring procedure consists of inspecting a single item at every m produced items, which is examined r times independently to decide its condition. Once an inspected item is declared non-conforming, the process is stopped and adjusted. A direct search technique is used to find the optimum parameters which minimize the expected cost function. The proposed model is illustrated by a numerical example. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
This paper discusses the importance of realistic implementation of the physical boundary conditions into computational domain for the simulation of the oscillatory turbulent boundary layer flow over smooth and rough flat beds. A mathematical model composed of the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equation, turbulent kinetic energy (k) and dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy (ε) has been developed. Control‐volume approach is used to discretize the governing equations to facilitate the numerical solution. Non‐slip condition is imposed on the bottom surface, and irrotational main flow properties are applied to the upper boundary. The turbulent kinetic energy is zero at the bottom, whereas the dissipation rate is approaching to a constant value, which is proportional to the kinematic viscosity times the second derivative of the turbulent kinetic energy. The output of the model is compared with the available experimental studies conducted in oscillatory tunnels and wave flume. It is observed that the irrotational flow assumption at the upper boundary is not realistic in case of water tunnels. Therefore, new upper boundary conditions are proposed for oscillatory tunnels. The data of wave flume show good agreement with the proposed numerical model. Additionally, several factors such as grid aspect ratio, staggered grid arrangement, time‐marching scheme and convergence criteria that are important to obtain a robust, realistic and stable code are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
A simple CE method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of chlordiazepoxide (CHL), amitriptyline, and nortriptyline (mixture I) or the determination of CHL and imipramine (mixture II) using the same BGE. Sertraline and amitriptyline were used as internal standards for the first and second mixtures, respectively. The method allows amitriptyline to be completely separated from its impurity and main metabolite nortriptyline, which can be quantified from 0.2 μg/mL. The separation was achieved using 20 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 5 containing 12 mM β‐cyclodextrin and 1 mM carboxymethyl‐β‐cyclodextrin. UV detection was performed at 200 nm and a voltage of 15 kV was applied on an uncoated fused‐silica capillary at 25°C. These experimental conditions allowed separation of the compounds to be obtained in 7 min. Calibration graphs proved the linearity up to 40 μg/mL for CHL, up to 100 μg/mL for amitriptyline and imipramine, and up to 5 μg/mL for nortriptyline. The accuracy and precision of the method have been determined by analyzing synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations. The analytical results were quite good in all cases indicating that the method was linear, sensitive, precise, accurate, and selective for both mixtures.  相似文献   
10.
Abstract Rift Valley Fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito‐born pathogen that infects livestock but it also has the capability to infect humans through direct or indirect contact with blood or organs of infected animals and by bites from infected mosquitos. The economic and social cost of the disease to rural populations can lead to a cascade of negative effects on the sustainability of animal and human populations. Vaccines exist to protect against this disease. Through a compartment model depicting the interactions leading to the spread of RVF in Aedes and Culex mosquitos and a livestock population, an optimal control problem is developed to minimize the number of vaccinated livestock at the final time while minimizing the negative effects of the infected Aedes and Culex mosquitos and the cost of the vaccination process. The unique optimal vaccination strategy is produced for given high transmission parameters and numerical results portray that vaccination depends on the level of effectiveness of the protocol.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号