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1.
A liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 12 constituents of Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), namely puerarin, daidzein, baicalin, wogonoside, wogonin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, coptisine and glycyrrhetic acid, in rat plasma. The plasma samples were spiked with the internal standard (IS) carbamazepine acidified with HCl and extracted by liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shiseido Capcell PAK C18 column utilizing a gradient elution profile and a mobile phase consisting of (A) 0.1% formic acid in water and (B) acetonitrile. Detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and a run time of 8 min. All of the calibration curves gave good linearity (r > 0.9930) over the concentration range from 0.6–360 to 16.2–9720 ng/mL for all components. The intra‐ and inter‐day precisions were <15.0% in terms of the relative standard deviation, and the accuracies were within ±13.7% in terms of the relative error. The method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the major active compounds of Gegen Qinlian Decoction after its oral administration to rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Folium Eriobotryae effective fraction (FEA), the extract of Folium Eriobotryae, had been used as anti‐hyperglycemia and anti‐hyperlipemia medicine in China. A previous study indicated that euscaphic acid, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, the five structurally similar triterpene acids (containing two groups of structural isomers), are the major components of FEA. In the present study, we developed a specific and reliable LC‐MS method for simultaneous determination of the five triterpene acids in rat plasma, and further investigated their pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration of FEA. Following a simple sample preparation, chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with a mobile phase composed of methanol–0.1% ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v). Quantification was achieved by monitoring the selected ions at m/z 487.6 for euscaphic acid, m/z 471.5 for maslinic acid and corosolic acid, m/z 455.5 for oleanolic acid and ursolic acid and m/z 469.5 for internal standard. The method was validated to be specific, accurate and precise over the concentration ranges of 10–3000 ng/mL with limits of detections of 5 ng/mL for the five triterpene acids. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the five structurally similar triterpene acids in rats after oral administration of FEA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
A single crystal of neodymium gallate was investigated by FTIR-spectroscopy in the reststrahlen region between 100–1000 cm−1. The three spectra of the crystal in principal orientations were analyzed by dispersion analysis and the dispersion parameters and the dielectric tensor function were obtained. This allows to properly characterize and quantitatively analyze films of this important substrate material by IR-optical methods.  相似文献   
5.
Multicomponent network formation by using a shape‐persistent macrocycle ( MC6 ) at the interface between an organic liquid and Au(111) surface is demonstrated. MC6 serves as a versatile building block that can be coadsorbed with a variety of organic molecules based on different types of noncovalent interactions at the liquid–solid interface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals the formation of crystalline bicomponent networks upon codeposition of MC6 with aromatic molecules, such as fullerene (C60) and coronene. Tetracyanoquinodimethane, on the other hand, was found to induce disorder into the MC6 networks by adsorbing on the rim of the macrocycle. Immobilization of MC6 itself was studied in two different noncovalently assembled host networks. MC6 assumed a rather passive role as a guest and simply occupied the host cavities in one network, whereas it induced a structural transition in the other. Finally, the central cavity of MC6 was used to capture C60 in a complex three‐component system. Precise immobilization of organic molecules at discrete locations within multicomponent networks, as demonstrated here, constitutes an important step towards bottom‐up fabrication of functional surface‐based nanostructures.  相似文献   
6.
A comprehensive conformational analysis of both 2,3‐difluorobutane diastereomers is presented based on density functional theory calculations in vacuum and in solution, as well as NMR experiments in solution. While for 1,2‐difluoroethane the fluorine gauche effect is clearly the dominant effect determining its conformation, it was found that for 2,3‐difluorobutane there is a complex interplay of several effects, which are of similar magnitude but often of opposite sign. As a result, unexpected deviations in dihedral angles, relative conformational energies and populations are observed which cannot be rationalised only by chemical intuition. Furthermore, it was found that it is important to consider the free energies of the various conformers, as these lead to qualitatively different results both in vacuum and in solvent, when compared to calculations based only on the electronic energies. In contrast to expectations, it was found that vicinal syn‐difluoride introduction in the butane and by extension, longer hydrocarbon chains, is not expected to lead to an effective stabilisation of the linear conformation. Our findings have implications for the use of the vicinal difluoride motif for conformational control.  相似文献   
7.
Enterococcus faecalis is one of most important nosocomial and often multi‐antibiotic resistant pathogens responsible for infections that are difficult to treat. Previously, a cell‐wall polysaccharide termed diheteroglycan (DHG) was isolated and characterized as a promising vaccine candidate. However, the configuration of its lactic acid (LA) residue attached to the galactofuranoside unit was not assessed, although it influences conformation of DHG chain in terms of biological recognition and immune evasion. This study proves the R configuration of the LA residue by means of chemical analysis, investigation of intramolecular NMR nuclear Overhauser effects and molecular dynamics simulations of native DHG and corresponding R and S models, which were obtained by using pyranoside‐into‐furanoside rearrangement. As alternative treatment and prevention strategies for E. faecalis are desperately needed, this discovery may offer the prospect of a synthetic vaccine to actively immunize patients at risk.  相似文献   
8.
A series of dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesised, and the complexes were determined to be new highly selective compounds for binding to telomeric G‐quadruplex DNA. The interactions of these complexes with telomeric G‐quadruplex DNA were studied by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular modelling. The results showed that the complexes 1 , 2 and 4 induced and stabilised the formation of antiparallel G‐quadruplexes of telomeric DNA in the absence of salt or in the presence of 100 mM K+‐containing buffer. Furthermore, complexes 1 and 2 strongly bind to and effectively stabilise the telomeric G‐quadruplex structure and have significant selectivity for G‐quadruplex over duplex DNA. In comparison, complex 3 had a much lesser effect on the G‐quadruplex, suggesting that possession of a suitably sized plane for good π–π stacking with the G‐quadruplets is essential for the interaction of the dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes with the G‐quadruplex. Moreover, telomerase inhibition by the four complexes and their cellular effects were studied, and complex 1 was determined to be the most promising inhibitor of both telomerase and HeLa cell proliferation.  相似文献   
9.
A series of α‐aminophosphonates were synthesized through one‐pot condensation of aryl aldehydes, aryl amines and diethyl phosphite in the absence of any catalyst and organic solvents. All the synthesized α‐aminophosphonates were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis and in the case of compound 4j by X‐ray crystallography. Some of these new α‐aminophosphonate derivatives were found to have cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell line DU145 in vitro by the MTT method.  相似文献   
10.
The synthesis, characterisation, and crystal structure determination of the closely related compounds 3,3′‐bi‐(5‐trifluoromethyl‐1,2,4‐oxadiazole) and 5,5′‐bi‐(2‐ trifluoromethyl‐1,3,4‐oxadiazole) are reported. These two compounds are known for their bioactivity; however, in this study they serve as model compounds to evaluate the suitability of the heterocyclic oxadiazole ring system for energetic materials when the fluorine atoms in the exocyclic CF3 groups are substituted successively by nitro groups. Quantum chemical calculations for the bi‐1,3,4‐ oxadiazole derivatives with difluoronitromethyl, fluorodinitromethyl, and trinitromethyl groups have been carried out and predict promising energetic performances for both explosive and propulsive applications.  相似文献   
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