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1.
Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information‐dependent acquisition scan for the low‐level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data‐processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
The reaction of dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates with 1‐aryl‐2‐nitroethanones in the presence of pyridine leads to dialkyl 5‐aryloyl‐isoxazole‐3,4‐dicarboxylates through a novel mechanism, which involves a [2+2] cycloaddition/ring opening/cyclization sequence.  相似文献   
3.
A new and convenient method for the preparation of 3,4‐dihydroquinazolines 5 with aryl and Ac groups at C(2) and N(3), respectively, has been developed. The key sequence is the formation of aza‐phosphorane intermediates by the reaction of N‐[2‐(azidomethyl)phenyl]benzamides 1 with Ph3P, followed by intramolecular aza‐Wittig reaction and 3‐acetylation, which can be conducted in one‐pot.  相似文献   
4.
Two new steroidal alkaloids, 23‐methoxycyclopamine 3‐Oβ‐D ‐glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and isoecliptalbine ( 2 ), were isolated from the root and rhizoma of Veratrum maackii Regel , together with five known compounds, i.e., verussurine ( 3 ), verabenzoamine ( 4 ), verazine ( 5 ), isoverazine ( 6 ), and verazinine ( 7 ). Their structures were established by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, as well as by comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 – 7 could cause DNA damage in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of mice in a dose‐dependent manner by using single‐cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay).  相似文献   
5.
The stereoselective synthesis of the C(31)–C(39) and C(20)–C(27) fragments of phorboxazole A ( 1 ) was achieved from commercially available and inexpensive D ‐mannitol. Crimmins aldol reaction and a decarboxylative Claisen‐type reaction are the key steps for the C(31)–C(39) fragment, and L ‐proline‐catalyzed aldol reaction, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, and epoxide ring opening reaction with Gilman's reagent are the key steps for the C(20)–C(27) fragment of phorboxazole.  相似文献   
6.
The asymmetric synthesis of two naturally occurring 5‐hydroxy‐γ‐butyrolactones, (4R,5R)‐5‐hydroxy‐4‐decanolide ( 1a ) and (?)‐muricatacin ( 2 ), is described using a general alkyne‐mediated strategy. The key steps involved are Sonogashira coupling for the desired carbon‐chain extension followed by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation to construct the hydroxy‐lactone framework.  相似文献   
7.
The standard enthalpies of formation of selected ternary half-Heusler type compositions XYZ (X = Au, Co, Fe, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru; Y = Hf, Mn, Ti, Zr; Z = Ga, Sn) were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the half-Heusler compounds (prototype MgAgAs, Pearson symbol cF12, space group F-43m) are, IrMnSn (−29.4 ± 1.8); NiTiSn (−52.6 ± 2.4); PtHfSn (−98.8 ± 3.4); PtMnSn (−55.8 ± 2.6); PtTiSn (−93.6 ± 3.3); PtZrSn (−104.9 ± 3.8); for the B2 compound (prototype CsCl, Pearson symbol cP2, space group Pm-3m), RuMnGa (−26.9 ± 1.7); for the C1 structured (prototype CaF2, Pearson symbol cF12, space group Pm-3m) or the C1b structured compound IrMnGa (−40.9 ± 1.7). Indicative standard enthalpies of formation of the following compounds were obtained, half-Heusler compounds AuMnSn, CoTiSn, IrZrSn, NiHfSn, NiZrSn, PdHfSn, PdZrSn, RhTiSn; Heusler compound (prototype Cu2MnAl, Pearson symbol cF16, space group Fm-3m) RhMnSn; hexagonal compound (prototype BeZrSi, Pearson symbol hP6, space group P63/mmc) PtMnGa and another type of hexagonal compound (prototype RhHfSn, Pearson symbol hP18, space group P-62c) RhHfSn, IrZrsn, RhZrSn. Values were compared with ab initio calculations from AFLOW and OQMD. Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Selected alloys were further annealed to investigate phase transformations and phase relationships.  相似文献   
8.
Pyrazolo[4,3‐d]pyrimidines are of interest as potential kinase inhibitors. This article describes the formation of a novel highly conjugated, condensed, centrosymmetric heteroaromatic compound, 4,9‐dichloro‐2,7‐diisopropyl‐1,3,5,5b,6,8,10,10b‐octaazacyclopenta[h,i]aceanthrylene ( 3 ), during the chlorination of 5,7‐dihydroxypyrazolo[4,3‐d]pyrimidine ( 1 ) with phenylphosphonic dichloride. The nucleophilic attack of benzylamine on 3 afforded N‐benzyl‐5‐chloro‐3‐isopropyl‐1H‐pyrazolo[4,3‐d]pyrimidin‐7‐amine ( 6 ), which was further substituted to yield a pyrazolo[4,3‐d]pyrimidine analogue of roscovitine, a well‐known cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor.  相似文献   
9.
Following a recent investigation on the N(2D) + H2O reaction [Homayoon et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3508 (2014)], we report on an experimental and theoretical study of the isotopologue N(2D) + D2O reaction. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments were conducted at a collision energy of 10.3 kcal mol–1. Quasiclassical trajectory calculations were performed on a recent potential energy surface to derive the centre-of-mass functions necessary to simulate the CMB laboratory distributions. Excellent agreement was found. The importance of the channel leading to HON/DON was confirmed. The inclusion of this channel, in addition to that leading to the isomer HNO/DNO, can affect the models considering the coupling between nitrogen and oxygen chemistry in the upper atmosphere of Titan.  相似文献   
10.
The recently introduced multireference equation of motion (MR-EOM) approach is combined with a simple treatment of spin–orbit coupling, as implemented in the ORCA program. The resulting multireference equation of motion spin–orbit coupling (MR-EOM-SOC) approach is applied to the first-row transition metal atoms Cr, Mn, Fe and Co, for which experimental data are readily available. Using the MR-EOM-SOC approach, the splittings in each L-S multiplet can be accurately assessed (root mean square (RMS) errors of about 70 cm?1). The RMS errors for J-specific excitation energies range from 414 to 783 cm?1 and are comparable to previously reported J-averaged MR-EOM results using the ACESII program. The MR-EOM approach is highly efficient. A typical MR-EOM calculation of a full spin–orbit spectrum takes about 2 CPU hours on a single processor of a 12-core node, consisting of Intel XEON 2.93 GHz CPUs with 12.3 MB of shared cache memory.  相似文献   
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