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1.
ABSTRACT. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the narrowing of the distance between formal theory and practical environmental policy design. We formulate a general and comprehensive theoretical model in order to take into account the different informational and technological problems which characterize the definition and implementation of environmental taxes in a second best world where there also are distortionary taxes. Having formalized these problems, we present a general model which allows us to discuss the existence of efficient and implementable environmental quality objectives and policy instruments, and to analyze many particular cases.  相似文献   
2.
Ausgehend von dem technischen Stand und dem Leistungsvermögen dispersiver und nichtdispersiver Röntgenspektrometer werden das dispersive und has nichtdispersive Meβverfahren miteinander verglichen. Angesichts einiger prinzipieller Nachteile der dispersiven Röntgenspektrometer gibt es Einsatzmöglichkeiten für verschiedene Typen nichtdipersiver Spektrometer, die kurz beschrieben werden.  相似文献   
3.
GC‐MS analysis was performed on the coking sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to allow detailed chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The identification and characterization of the isomers of PAHs was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of their isomers with mass spectra databases or based on a comparison of electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of target compounds with those reference compounds. In total, 160 PAH compounds including numerous N‐, O‐, S‐, OH‐, and Cl‐containing derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target compounds was performed in the selected ion‐monitoring mode using the internal standard method. The total concentrations of selected compounds in the coking sludge samples from the anaerobic tank, aerobic tank, hydrolytic tank, and secondary clarifier of the WWTP ranged from 1690 ± 585 to 6690 ± 522 mg/kg, which were much higher than those in other industrial and municipal sludges. PAHs with four and five rings were found to be the dominant compounds, and diagnostic ratios of these compounds suggested that they had the characteristics of coal combustion and pyrolysis.  相似文献   
4.
应用激光诱导击穿光谱检测污水溶液中的砷   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
工业冶炼过程中产生的废水中含有As等重金属元素,对环境造成污染并对人类身体健康形成危害,有必要对其进行实时、在线的监测.激光诱导击穿光谱(LIBS)是一种新型的元素测量技术,具有快速检测等优点.文章作者搭建了一套激光诱导击穿光谱实验装置,采用Nd:YAG激光器产生的脉冲激光击穿样品产生等离子体,其发射的光谱被中阶梯光栅光谱仪分光,并用ICCD进行光电探测.对从现场采集的含砷工业废水开展了LIBS探测实验,并定性分析出了As元素的特征谱线.根据一系列含As浓度不同的污水样品的LIBS实验结果,获得元素浓度与谱线强度的关系曲线(定标曲线).采用定标曲线可以对未知含As浓度的工业废水进行定量分析.结果表明,采用LIBS方法能够实现对污水溶液中的As元素的快速检测,具有广泛的应用前景.  相似文献   
5.
In our study, the potential of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by cultivating fast-growing rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii) in sludge and in industrial wastewater was evaluated. Results confirmed the possibility of using sludge as media for rhizobial growth. During growth, substantial quantity of PHB was accumulated and yields varied depending on the media and rhizobial species. Growing in sludge, PHB production did not exceed 3.7% w/w for all strains at the end of experiment (after 72 h). During the growth of S. meliloti, PHB yield varied and the maximum value reached 7.27% w/w after 60 h, with 1% Total Suspend Solid (TSS) sludge. Alkaline sludge pre-treatment affects rhizobial growth but did not improve the PHB accumulation. While growing S. meliloti in industrial wastewater, the PHB yields varied and the highest value was obtained with slaughterhouse wastewater (10.7% w/w) after 35 h of growth. Therefore, this work shows the potential of exploiting PHB production by rhizobia growing in wastewater or sludge which could be applied to bioplastic industry, and confirms the potential of these recyclable wastes for high production of rhizobial cells useable for legumes inoculants production. This study provides an environmentally sound way of sludge and wastewater management and use in diverse biotechnological applications.  相似文献   
6.
为了应用影子价格实现资源在全社会的最优配置,本文通过线性规划的对偶理论和非线性优化问题的Kuhn-Tucker条件揭示了影子价格的本质,在资源配置优化问题中线性规划模型中的影子价格就是其对偶问题的最优解,非线性规划模型中的影子价格就是与最优解相对应的拉格朗日乘数。根据松紧定理解释了资源影子价格与资源限量之间的关系,还对线性规划模型与非线性规划模型中影子价格的不同表现进行了分析。最后阐明了影子价格在资源配置中的应用。  相似文献   
7.
当前的金融危机再次表明,传统经济学作为一门学科缺乏解释力和预测力.造成这个令人失望的状况的根本原因是由于经济学家没有按照科学的范式来发展这个学科.经济学的现状吸引了一群物理学家进入这个学科并形成了一个新的交叉学科——经济物理学,人们期望它在促进经济学科学化的进程中起决定性作用.文章首先简要介绍了经济学的主要内容,说明经济学理论是建立在理性和均衡假定基础之上的;接着论述了为什么经济学还不是一门科学,指出经济学研究不是基于逻辑实证主义原则来开展的;文章还分析了物理学家是如何研究经济问题的,介绍了经济物理学的主要研究内容和研究方法;文章最后提出经济学范式的转变必须从观察和实验出发,经济学理论必须建立在一个合理设计的量纲体系和对实际经济运行过程的正确理解基础之上.  相似文献   
8.
The metastable zone width (MSZW, ΔTm) and induction time (tind) were determined with computer simulation for seeded batch crystallization of potassium sulfate from aqueous solution. The MSZW and induction time determined with simulation showed the same behavior as experimental values reported in the literature; log (ΔTm) increased linearly with an increase in log R (R: cooling rate) and tind decreases in proportion to (ΔT)nT: supercooling, n: nucleation order in the secondary rate expression of B=knT)n). The secondary nucleation parameters (kn and n) were deduced both from the simulated MSZW and induction times by using the previously proposed model [J. Cryst. Growth, 2010, 312, 548–554]. The secondary nucleation rate calculated with the deduced parameters was in agreement with that calculated with the parameters input for simulation.  相似文献   
9.
The influence of malic acid, which acts as an impurity on the cooling crystallization of zinc lactate is investigated in this paper by monitoring the relative supersaturation and the number of crystals during crystallization. The presence of malic acid increases the solution solubility and makes the metastable zone wider; it also changes the habit of the crystal. The purity of the final products is shown to be influenced by the amount and size of seed crystals, cooling rate, seeding temperature and final temperature, but appears to depend mainly on the particle size and level of supersaturation. Residual supersaturation thresholds are observed that depend on the final temperature. A model is proposed to predict the steady-state supersaturation value from the final temperature at a given impurity concentration. This model is based on Kubota and Gibbs equations.  相似文献   
10.
This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry – namely the role of β-lactose – and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of β-lactose in α-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.  相似文献   
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