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1.
In ESR dating of Early Pleistocene fossil tooth enamel samples, the fitting function used for the evaluation of the DE value is undoubtedly among the major sources of uncertainty. Dose recovery tests performed on fossil tooth enamel showing DE values >1,000 Gy demonstrate: (i) that high precision ESR measurements (<0.5%) and high DE reproducibility (<5%) may be achieved; (ii) the appropriateness of the Double Saturating Exponential (DSE) fitting function for ESR dose reconstruction. In contrast, the SSE function, which has been almost exclusively used so far, does simply not correctly describe the behavior of the radiation induced ESR signal of tooth enamel with the dose.Several fitting functions and data weighting options were tested and the combination of a DSE with data weighted by the inverse of the squared intensities is the procedure providing the most accurate DE results. However, the SSE may nevertheless sometimes produce consistent results if Dmax does not exceed 6*DE. Further work is required in that direction in order to determine more precisely in which conditions the SSE could be used as a fair approximation of the DSE function for these samples.  相似文献   
2.
A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis‐mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent laboratories from academia and industry. All participants used the same batch of samples, reagents and coated capillaries to run their assays, whereas they utilized the capillary electrophoresis‐mass spectrometry equipment available in their laboratories. The equipment used varied in model, type and instrument manufacturer. Furthermore, different types of sheath‐flow capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry interfaces were used. Migration time, peak height and peak area of ten representative target peptides of trypsin‐digested bovine serum albumin were determined by every laboratory on two consecutive days. The data were critically evaluated to identify outliers and final values for means, repeatability (precision within a laboratory) and reproducibility (precision between laboratories) were established. For relative migration time the repeatability was between 0.05 and 0.18% RSD and the reproducibility between 0.14 and 1.3% RSD. For relative peak area repeatability and reproducibility values obtained were 3–12 and 9–29% RSD, respectively. These results demonstrate that capillary electrophoresis‐mass spectrometry is robust enough to allow a method transfer across multiple laboratories and should promote a more widespread use of peptide mapping and other capillary electrophoresis‐mass spectrometry applications in biopharmaceutical analysis and related fields.  相似文献   
3.
In this paper, a solution for the equilibrium configuration of an elastic beam subject to three-point bending is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions. General equations are derived, and the domain of the solution is established. Several examples that illustrate a use of the solution are discussed. The obtained numerical results are compared with the results of other authors. An approximation formula by which the beam load is given as a polynomial function of beam deflection is also derived. The range of applicability of the approximation is illustrated by numerical examples.  相似文献   
4.
We consider the Korteweg–de Vries equation with a source. The source depends on the solution as polynomials with constant coefficients. Using the Painlevé test we show that the generalized Korteweg–de Vries equation is not integrable by the inverse scattering transform. However there are some exact solutions of the generalized Korteweg–de Vries equation for two forms of the source. We present these exact solutions.  相似文献   
5.
We discuss statistical tests in inverse problems when the original equation is replaced by a discretized one, i.e. a linear system of equations. Previous studies revealed that using the discretization level as regularizing procedure is possible, but its application is limited unless discretization is restricted to the singular value decomposition, see C. Marteau and P. Mathé, General regularization schemes for signal detection in inverse problems, 2013. General linear regularization may circumvent this, and we propose a regularization of the discretized equations. The discretization level may be chosen adaptively, which may save computational budget. This results in tests which are known to yield the optimal separation rate up to some constant in many cases.  相似文献   
6.
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is employed for the measurement of full-field deformation during fluid–structure interaction experiments in a wind tunnel. The methodology developed for the wind tunnel environment is quantitatively assessed. The static deformation error of the system is shown to be less than 0.8% when applied to a curved aerofoil specimen moved through known displacements using a micrometre. Enclosed camera fairings were shown to be required to minimise error due to wind induced camera vibration under aerodynamic loading. The methodology was demonstrated using a high performance curved foil, from a NACRA F20 sailing catamaran, tested within the University of Southampton RJ Mitchell, 3.5 mx2.4 m, wind tunnel. The aerodynamic forces induced in the wind tunnel are relatively small, compared with typical hydrodynamic loading, resulting in small deformations. The coupled deflection and blade twist is evaluated over the tip region (80–100% Span, measured from the root) for a range of wind speeds and angles of attack. Steady deformations at low angles of attack were shown to be well captured however unsteady deformations at higher angles of attack were observed as an increase in variability due to hardware limitations in the current DIC system. It is concluded that higher DIC sample rates are required to assess unsteady deformations in the future. The full field deformation data reveals limited blade twist for low angles of attack, below the stall angle. For larger angles, however, there is a tendency to reduce the effective angle of attack at the tip of the structure, combined with an unsteady structural response. This capability highlights the benefits of the presented methodology over fixed-point measurements as the three dimensional foil deflections can be assessed over a large tip region. In addition, the methodology demonstrates that very small deformations and twist angles can be resolved.  相似文献   
7.
Rain–wind-induced vibration (RWIV) of stay cables has become a concern in bridge engineering over the past decades. The excitation mechanism of RWIV remains unclear. Many researchers believe that the upper rivulet is crucial to RWIV. However, experimental study on rivulet is challenging and limited. The current study designs and tests a cable model of 160 mm in diameter in an open jet wind tunnel. The upper rivulet movement and cable vibration are simultaneously measured. The importance of the upper rivulet in RWIV is directly demonstrated by alternately controlling the upper and lower rivulets. The characteristics of the upper rivulet movement and the effects of this movement on RWIV are investigated in detail. The experiment shows that the rivulet–cable system is coupled, which causes the cable and upper rivulet to vibrate at different amplitudes under the same wind speed. The upper rivulet harmonic movement changes the wind loading on the cable, causing the harmonic vibration of the cable, which in turn exerts a harmonic inertia force on the rivulet. A large vibration of the coupled system then develops.  相似文献   
8.
Mood’s median test for testing the equality of medians is a nonparametric approach, which has been widely used for uncensored data in practice. For survival data, many nonparametric methods have been proposed to test for the equality of survival curves. However, if the survival medians, rather than the curves, are compared, those methods are not applicable. Some approaches have been developed to fill this gap. Unfortunately, in general those tests have inflated type I error rates, which make them inapplicable to survival data with small sample sizes. In this paper, Mood’s median test for uncensored data is extended for survival data. The results from a comprehensive simulation study show that the proposed test outperforms existing methods in terms of controlling type I error rate and detecting power.  相似文献   
9.
Various compact difference schemes (both old and new, explicit and implicit, one-level and two-level), which approximate the diffusion equation and SchrSdinger equation with periodical boundary conditions are constructed by means of the general approach. The results of numerical experiments for various initial data and right hand side are presented. We evaluate the real order of their convergence, as well as their stability, effectiveness, and various kinds of monotony. The optimal Courant number depends on the number of grid knots and on the smoothness of solutions. The competition of various schemes should be organized for the fixed number of arithmetic operations, which are necessary for numerical integration of a given Cauchy problem. This approach to the construction of compact schemes can be developed for numerical solution of various problems of mathematical physics.  相似文献   
10.
This paper presents aeroelastic analyses of wind turbines, using the compressible flow Helicopter Multi-Block (HMB2) solver of Liverpool University, coupled with a Computational Structural Dynamics method. For this study, the MEXICO and NREL Phase VI wind turbines were employed. A static aeroelastic method was first employed for the analysis of the MEXICO blade and the effect of the torsional stiffness was studied at 10, 15 and 24 m/s axial wind speeds. The torsional deformations showed strong dependency on this parameter and the blade region from mid-span to the tip was the most susceptible to aeroelastic effects. The work progressed by studying both the static and dynamic response on the NREL wind turbine, where the nacelle and the tower were considered. Mean deflections between the static and dynamic methods showed consistency and, due to the structural properties of this blade, flapping modes were dominant. The dynamic aeroelastic method enabled an assessment of the effect of flapping on the blade loads, in conjunction with the effect of tower. Aeroelastic effects were found to be secondary for the MEXICO blade, but had a stronger effect on the larger NREL Phase VI blade.  相似文献   
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