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1.
This work presents a theoretical study of the resonance frequency and buckling load of nanoplates with high-order surface stress model. A classical thin plate theory based on Kirchhoff–Love assumption is implemented with surface effects. Circular and rectangular nanoplates with simply supported end conditions are exemplified. The size-dependent solutions are compared with the simplified solutions based on simple surface stress model, and also on the classical theory of elasticity. We aim to explore the scope of applicability so that the modified continuum mechanics model could serve as a refined approach in the prediction of mechanical behavior of nanoplates.  相似文献   
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An electrochemical approach to fabricate a nanostructured Fe/Pt-Fe catalyst through electrodepo-sition followed by galvanic replacement is presented. An Fe/Pt-Fe nanostructured electrode was prepared by deposition of Fe-Zn onto a Fe electrode surface, followed by replacement of the Zn by Pt at open-circuit potential in a Pt-containing alkaline solution. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques reveal that the Fe/Pt-Fe electrode is porous and contains Pt. The electrocatalytic activity of the Fe/Pt-Fe electrode for oxidation of methanol was examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrooxidation current on the Fe/Pt-Fe catalyst is much higher than that on flat Pt and smooth Fe catalysts. The onset potential and peak potential on the Fe/Pt-Fe catalyst are more negative than those on flat Pt and smooth Fe electrodes for methanol electrooxidation. All results show that this nanostructured Fe/Pt-Fe electrode is very attractive for integrated fuel cell applications in alkaline media.  相似文献   
4.
郭少云 《高分子科学》2015,33(7):1028-1037
In this work, the effects of annealing conditions on the microstructure of polypropylene(PP) precursor films and further on the porous structure and permeability of stretched membranes were investigated. Combinations of WAXD, FTIR, DSC and DMA results clearly showed the crystalline orientation and crystallinity of the precursor film increased with annealing temperature, while the molecular chain entanglements in the amorphous phase decreased. Changes in the deformation behavior suggested more lamellar separation occurred for the films annealed at higher temperatures. Surface morphologies of the membranes examined by SEM revealed more pore number and uniform porous structure as the annealing temperature increased. In accordance with the SEM results, the permeability of the membranes increased with annealing temperature. On the other hand, it was found that 10 min was almost enough for the annealing process to obtain the microporous membranes with an optimal permeability.  相似文献   
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In the first part of this paper we present a spatially structured dynamic economic growth model which takes into account the level of pollution and a possible taxation based on the amount of produced pollution. In the second part we analyze an optimal harvesting control problem with an objective function composed of three terms, namely the intertemporal utility of the decision maker, the space–time average of the level of pollution in the habitat, and the disutility due to the imposition of taxation.  相似文献   
6.
In this paper, a diffusive predator–prey system, in which the prey species exhibits herd behavior and the predator species with quadratic mortality, has been studied. The stability of positive constant equilibrium, Hopf bifurcations, and diffusion‐driven Turing instability are investigated under the Neumann boundary condition. The explicit condition for the occurrence of the diffusion‐driven Turing instability is derived, which is determined by the relationship of the diffusion rates of two species. The formulas determining the direction and the stability of Hopf bifurcations depending on the parameters of the system are derived. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to verify and extend the theoretical results and show the existence of spatially homogeneous periodic solutions and nonconstant steady states. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
In this paper, we consider the problem where λ is a spectral parameter; q(x) ∈ L1(0,1) is complex‐valued function; αs, s = 1,2,3, are arbitrary complex constants that satisfy α2 = α1 + α3 and σ = 0,1. The boundary conditions of this problem are regular, but not strongly regular. Asymptotic formulae for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the considered boundary value problem are established. It is proved that all the eigenvalues, except for finite number, are simple and the system of root functions of this spectral problem forms a basis in the space Lp(0,1), 1 < p < ∞ , when ; moreover, this basis is unconditional for p = 2. We note that the considered problem was previously investigated in the condition of α2α1 + α3. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
In this paper, we introduce systems of Volterra integral forms of the Lane–Emden equations. We use the systematic Adomian decomposition method to handle these systems of integral forms. The Volterra integral forms overcome the singular behavior at the origin x = 0. The Adomian decomposition method gives reliable algorithm for analytic approximate solutions of these systems. Our results are supported by investigating several numerical examples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
This paper reconciles two sets of literature with regard to the interactive ecological and economic impacts of invasive grass species and cattle stocking. We model cattle as optimal foragers, satiation foragers, and proportional foragers in order to understand the impact that each assumption imposes on predicted economic and ecological outcomes. Through this model sensitivity (as opposed to parameter sensitivity) analysis, we are able to identify three main drivers of plant invasions: exogenous forces such as climate change or nitrogen deposition, poor land management decisions, and a misalignment of incentives between cattle and ranchers even when ranchers behave optimally.  相似文献   
10.
We study the mechanical failure of cemented granular materials (e.g., sandstones) using a constitutive model based on breakage mechanics for grain crushing and damage mechanics for cement fracture. The theoretical aspects of this model are presented in Part I: Tengattini et al. (2014), A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables, Part I – Theory (Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 10.1016/j.jmps.2014.05.021). In this Part II we investigate the constitutive and structural responses of cemented granular materials through analyses of Boundary Value Problems (BVPs).The multiple failure mechanisms captured by the proposed model enable the behavior of cemented granular rocks to be well reproduced for a wide range of confining pressures. Furthermore, through comparison of the model predictions and experimental data, the micromechanical basis of the model provides improved understanding of failure mechanisms of cemented granular materials. In particular, we show that grain crushing is the predominant inelastic deformation mechanism under high pressures while cement failure is the relevant mechanism at low pressures. Over an intermediate pressure regime a mixed mode of failure mechanisms is observed. Furthermore, the micromechanical roots of the model allow the effects on localized deformation modes of various initial microstructures to be studied. The results obtained from both the constitutive responses and BVP solutions indicate that the proposed approach and model provide a promising basis for future theoretical studies on cemented granular materials.  相似文献   
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