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1.
Polydopamine (coded as PDA) is reported to be very adhesive and reactive due to the attached functional groups, such as amine and hydroxyl groups. In this work, taking advantage of the condensation between Si–OH of the hydroxylated alkyltrichlorosilane (ATS) and C–OH on PDA surface, ATS molecules with different chain carbon number of 10, 14 and 18 were grafted onto the 3‐aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES)‐PDA dual‐layer film, which was composed of PDA outerlayer and APTES underlayer, on Si substrate. Thus, hydrophobic trilayer films coded as APTES‐PDA‐ATS were prepared successfully. In order to reveal the dependence of the tribological behaviors upon the microstructures of the film, tribological experiments were conducted on an atomic force microscope and a ball‐on‐plate tribometer. Experimental results showed that the (micro‐) friction reducing (characterized by a parameter of relative friction coefficient or friction coefficient, RFC or FC) and macro‐wear resisting (characterized by anti‐wear life) behaviors were related with the chain length of outerlayer and the PDA thickness. Specifically, on one hand, as the chain length increases, RFC/FC decreased and macro anti‐wear life lengthened; on the other hand, as PDA gets thicker, RFC increased and the anti‐wear life enhanced. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
In this study, we focused on the surface character of bacterial cellulose (BC) before and after oxidation mediated by 2,2,6,6‐tetramethylpiperidine‐1‐oxyl (TEMPO).Solid‐state 13C NMR, XPS, SEM, contact angle and surface free energy analyses were performed to investigate the effects of various parameters (reaction time and oxidant and catalyst concentrations) on the surface composition, morphology and polarity of the BC. The results provided by the combined use of these techniques showed that hydrogen bonds were disrupted on the BC surface after carboxylation occurred; therefore, the surface of oxidized BC was rougher than that of the original BC, and the surface free energy, especially the polar components, increased after oxidation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Silver nanolayers sputtered on polytetrafluoroethylene and their changes induced by post‐deposition annealing at 100–300 °C are studied. Changes in surface morphology and roughness are examined by atomic force microscopy and by measurement of electrical sheet resistance by two‐point technique. Chemical composition was determined by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrokinetic analysis in dependence on the gold layer thickness. The annealing at 300 °C leads to significant rearrangement of the silver layer, and the transition threshold increases to 35 nm. The presence of oxidized structures on silver‐coated samples is observed in XPS spectra and by electrokinetic analysis, too. Annealing of pristine and silver‐coated poly(tetrafluoroethylene) at 300 °C results in significant change of the sample surface morphology and chemistry. There is observed formation of isolated silver islands on the surface, which could be connected with silver melting. Later, the silver agglomeration takes place. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
The anisotropic effects and short‐range quantum effects are essential characters in the formation of halogen bonds. Since there are an array of applications of halogen bonds and much difficulty in modeling them in classical force fields, the current research reports solely the polarizable ellipsoidal force field (PEff) for halogen bonds. The anisotropic charge distribution was represented with the combination of a negative charged sphere and a positively charged ellipsoid. The polarization energy was incorporated by the induced dipole model. The resulting force field is “physically motivated,” which includes separate, explicit terms to account for the electrostatic, repulsion/dispersion, and polarization interaction. Furthermore, it is largely compatible with existing, standard simulation packages. The fitted parameters are transferable and compatible with the general AMBER force field. This PEff model could correctly reproduces the potential energy surface of halogen bonds at MP2 level. Finally, the prediction of the halogen bond properties of human Cathepsin L (hcatL) has been found to be in excellent qualitative agreement with the cocrystal structures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
5.
Geometric modeling of biomolecules plays an essential role in the conceptualization of biolmolecular structure, function, dynamics, and transport. Qualitatively, geometric modeling offers a basis for molecular visualization, which is crucial for the understanding of molecular structure and interactions. Quantitatively, geometric modeling bridges the gap between molecular information, such as that from X‐ray, NMR, and cryo‐electron microscopy, and theoretical/mathematical models, such as molecular dynamics, the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, and the Nernst–Planck equation. In this work, we present a family of variational multiscale geometric models for macromolecular systems. Our models are able to combine multiresolution geometric modeling with multiscale electrostatic modeling in a unified variational framework. We discuss a suite of techniques for molecular surface generation, molecular surface meshing, molecular volumetric meshing, and the estimation of Hadwiger's functionals. Emphasis is given to the multiresolution representations of biomolecules and the associated multiscale electrostatic analyses as well as multiresolution curvature characterizations. The resulting fine resolution representations of a biomolecular system enable the detailed analysis of solvent–solute interaction, and ion channel dynamics, whereas our coarse resolution representations highlight the compatibility of protein‐ligand bindings and possibility of protein–protein interactions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
6.
In the later stages of drug design projects, accurately predicting relative binding affinities of chemically similar compounds to a biomolecular target is of utmost importance for making decisions based on the ranking of such compounds. So far, the extensive application of binding free energy approaches has been hampered by the complex and time‐consuming setup of such calculations. We introduce the free energy workflow (FEW) tool that facilitates setup and execution of binding free energy calculations with the AMBER suite for multiple ligands. FEW allows performing free energy calculations according to the implicit solvent molecular mechanics (MM‐PB(GB)SA), the linear interaction energy, and the thermodynamic integration approaches. We describe the tool's architecture and functionality and demonstrate in a show case study on Factor Xa inhibitors that the time needed for the preparation and analysis of free energy calculations is considerably reduced with FEW compared to a fully manual procedure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
7.
A detailed understanding of the adsorption of small molecules or macromolecules to a materials surface is of importance, for example, in the context of material and biomaterial research. Classical atomistic simulations in principle provide microscopic insight in the complex entropic and enthalpic interplay at the interface. However, an application of classical atomistic simulation techniques to such interface systems is a nontrivial problem, mostly because commonly used force fields cannot be straightforwardly applied, as they are usually developed to reproduce bulk properties of either solids or liquids but not the interfacial region between two phases. Therefore, a dual‐scale modeling approach has often been the method of choice in the past, in which the classical force field is parameterized such that quantum chemical information on near‐surface conformations and adsorption energies is reproduced by the classical force field. We will discuss in this review the current state‐of‐the‐art of quantum‐classical modeling of molecule–surface interactions and outline the major challenges in this field. In this context, we will, among other things, lay emphasis on discussing ways to obtain representable force fields and propose systematic and system‐independent strategies to optimize the quantum‐classical fitting procedure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
8.
Adsorption phenomena are relevant in a wide variety of subjects, from biophysics to technological applications. Different aspects, such as molecular recognition, multilayer deposition, and dynamics of polymer adsorption have been addressed. The methodologies used range from analytical and numerical methods to molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. In this work, a coarse‐grained model is used to explore the adsorption of charged backbones to oppositely charged regions of a surface. These regions encompass those small enough to prevent complete adsorption, but extend to surfaces sufficiently large to promote adsorption with minimal effect on the three‐dimensional conformation in bulk. Apart from the different surface areas explored, variations on the surface charge density, polyelectrolyte chain length, and chain stiffness were also considered. The degree of compaction of the polyelectrolyte, on adsorption, is different from that found in the bulk. Also, results indicate an nonuniform adsorption pattern on regularly charged surfaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
9.
In this study, 4‐thiophenol modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by the reduction of 4‐diazothiophenol tetrafluoroborate salt. Silver nanoparticles were attached to the thiophenol modified surface to prepare a thiophenol‐silver nanoparticle composite film. 4‐Aminothiopenol molecules were deposited by self‐assembling technique to form multi‐layered nanofilms of TP/SNP/PhNH2 on glassy carbon substrate. These surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflectance‐absorption infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry at each multilayer film growth process. Atomic force microscopic images of GC/TP/SNP/PhNH2 surfaces were also acquired. The characterization methods show that the amine group containing surface permits the subsequent modification by a variety of coupling reactions for the immobilization of more complex systems. An application of the electrode modification for the determination of uric acid with a significantly lower detection limit is described. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
Surface treatment (ST) of carbon fibers (CF) leads to an enhancement in fiber‐matrix adhesion. However, it deteriorates the strength of a fiber which makes its reinforcing action less effective in a composite. These effects in opposite directions control the net strength of a composite, and hence, the treatment has to be judiciously applied, which would enhance the first factor and minimize the second one. Authors have recently reported on four effective techniques (using various doses) such as treatments with nanoparticles of Ytterbium fluoride (YbF3), cold remote nitrogen–oxygen plasma (CRNOP), γ‐ray irradiation and nitric acid oxidation. Amongst these methods, nitric acid oxidation is studied in depth in the literature, and γ‐ray irradiation is sparingly studied. However, nano‐YbF3 and CRNOP were first time reported in the literature by the authors. However, comparative aspects of all these methods were not addressed. In this paper, these aspects in details are discussed to lay down the right criteria for selection of a ST technique of CF to design the desired performance of a composite. The composites with polyetherimide and treated CF (including untreated) were developed and evaluated for various properties including tribological one. Treated CF based composites exhibited excellent mechanical and tribological properties (under harsh operative conditions with wear rates ≈ 1 × 10?15 m3/Nm and μ ≈ 0.09). It was concluded that for strength and tribo‐performance, different treatments and doses are to be employed. Overall nanosized‐YbF3 treatment of CF proved to be the most promising ST method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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