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1.
Multicomponent network formation by using a shape‐persistent macrocycle ( MC6 ) at the interface between an organic liquid and Au(111) surface is demonstrated. MC6 serves as a versatile building block that can be coadsorbed with a variety of organic molecules based on different types of noncovalent interactions at the liquid–solid interface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals the formation of crystalline bicomponent networks upon codeposition of MC6 with aromatic molecules, such as fullerene (C60) and coronene. Tetracyanoquinodimethane, on the other hand, was found to induce disorder into the MC6 networks by adsorbing on the rim of the macrocycle. Immobilization of MC6 itself was studied in two different noncovalently assembled host networks. MC6 assumed a rather passive role as a guest and simply occupied the host cavities in one network, whereas it induced a structural transition in the other. Finally, the central cavity of MC6 was used to capture C60 in a complex three‐component system. Precise immobilization of organic molecules at discrete locations within multicomponent networks, as demonstrated here, constitutes an important step towards bottom‐up fabrication of functional surface‐based nanostructures.  相似文献   
2.
The effect of substrate temperature and N2/Ar flow ratio on the stoichiometry, structure and hardness of TaNx coatings prepared on (111) Si substrates by DC reactive sputtering was investigated. For the structural, chemical and morphological analysis, X‐ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron scanning and atomic force microscopy were respectively used. Hardness values of thin films were determined using the work of indentation model from nanoindentation measurements. TaN stoichiometric coatings were obtained for samples deposited at room temperature. The stoichiometric TaN phase was not obtained by increasing the temperature up to 773 K, even when increasing the N2/Ar flow ratio. Even when a saturation in nitrogen content was achieved, nitrogen vacancies are still present in those samples. For coatings prepared at 773 K and low N2/Ar flow ratio, a phase mixture between TaNx and cubic α‐Ta was observed, while a cubic structure δ‐TaN was formed by increasing the N2/Ar flow ratio. A maximum in hardness and (38 GPa) was obtained for the sample deposited at 773 K and a N2/Ar flow ratio of 0.2, which presented a δ‐TaN cubic crystalline structure and a roughness value of 1.6 nm. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
PdCuAu ternary alloy samples with different composition were synthesized on top of ZrO2‐modified porous stainless steel disks by the sequential electroless deposition technique. The structure, morphology and bulk composition of the samples were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDX). Complete alloy formation with a pure fcc phase for the Pd71Cu26Au3, Pd70Cu25Au5 and Pd67Cu24Au9 samples and a bcc structure for the Pd62Cu36Au2 and Pd60Cu37Au3 samples were obtained upon annealing at 500 °C for 120 h as revealed by XRD. A combination of low‐energy ion scattering (LEIS) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the surface properties of the PdCuAu alloys. XPS results confirmed alloy formation under the annealing conditions. XPS analysis also revealed that the near‐surface regions of the alloys became enriched in Pd with respect to the bulk composition determined by EDX. In contrast, LEIS and angle‐resolved XPS analyses showed that the top‐most surface layers in all samples were copper‐rich compared with the bulk composition. This high Cu surface concentration could impart resistance to bulk sulfide formation to the PdCuAu alloy membranes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
The effects of mechanical grinding/polishing, surface roughness, and near‐surface deformation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of thermally treated (TT) Alloy 690 were studied in a sodium chloride solution. The X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that mechanical grinding/polishing can change the ratio of the elements at the surface of the as‐received Alloy 690TT specimen by removing its Cr‐rich outer layer and causing deformation at the near‐surface microstructure, something which has a direct impact on the rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the pitting potential (Epit), and the corrosion potential (Ecorr) of Alloy 690TT. It was observed that the ratio of Cr in the surface is a significant factor that controls the rate of the ORR and the corrosion parameters such as Ecorr. Higher amounts of Cr at the surface accelerate the ORR. The near‐surface deformation shifts the Epit values towards less positive potentials. It was also found that due to the different near‐surface chemical composition of the as‐received Alloy 690TT specimen compared with the ground and the polished specimens, the surface roughness parameters do not have a regular correlation with the rate of the ORR and the values of the Ecorr and the Epit. Only the passive current density increases when the surface roughness is increased. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
We examine two formulations for the differential surface excitation parameter (DSEP): one provided by Tung et al. and the other given by the Chen–Kwei position‐dependent differential inverse inelastic mean free path integrated over the electron trajectory. We demonstrate that the latter converges to the former provided that the dielectric function of the solid does not depend on the momentum transfer or it depends on just the momentum transfer component parallel to the surface. Tung's DSEP represents therefore an approximation to the Chen–Kwei DSEP calculated for a dielectric function with no restrictions on the momentum dependence. The approximation is shown to work in the limit of small momentum transfer and to imply an error of 4%–5% for electrons traveling through the solid with energy E = 1 keV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
Silver nanoparticles (NPs) ranging in size from 40 to 100 nm were prepared in high yield by using an improved seed‐mediated method. The homogeneous Ag NPs were used as building blocks for 2D assembled Ag NP arrays by using an oil/water interface. A close‐packed 2D array of Ag NPs was fabricated by using packing molecules (3‐mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane) to control the interparticle spacing. The homogeneous 2D Ag NP array exhibited a strong quadrupolar cooperative plasmon mode resonance and a dipolar red‐shift relative to individual Ag NPs suspended in solution. A well‐arranged 2D Ag NP array was embedded in polydimethylsiloxane film and, with biaxial stretching to control the interparticle distance, concomitant variations of the quadrupolar and dipolar couplings were observed. As the interparticle distance increased, the intensity of the quadrupolar cooperative plasmon mode resonance decreased and dipolar coupling completely disappeared. The local electric field of the 2D Ag NP array was calculated by using finite difference time domain simulation and qualitatively showed agreement with the experimental measurements.  相似文献   
7.
H2‐promoted catalytic activity of oxide‐supported metal catalysts in low‐temperature CO oxidation is of great interest but its origin remains unknown. Employing an FeO(111)/Pt(111) inverse model catalyst, we herewith report direct experimental evidence for the spillover of H(a) adatoms on the Pt surface formed by H2 dissociation to the Pt?FeO interface to form hydroxyl groups that facilely oxidize CO(a) on the neighboring Pt surface to produce CO2. Hydroxyl groups and coadsorbed water play a crucial role in the occurrence of hydrogen spillover. These results unambiguously identify the occurrence of hydrogen spillover from the metal surface to the noble metal/metal oxide interface and the resultant enhanced catalytic activity of the metal/oxide interface in low‐temperature CO oxidation, which provides a molecular‐level understanding of both H2‐promoted catalytic activity of metal/oxide ensembles in low‐temperature CO oxidation and hydrogen spillover.  相似文献   
8.
This work presents a theoretical study of the resonance frequency and buckling load of nanoplates with high-order surface stress model. A classical thin plate theory based on Kirchhoff–Love assumption is implemented with surface effects. Circular and rectangular nanoplates with simply supported end conditions are exemplified. The size-dependent solutions are compared with the simplified solutions based on simple surface stress model, and also on the classical theory of elasticity. We aim to explore the scope of applicability so that the modified continuum mechanics model could serve as a refined approach in the prediction of mechanical behavior of nanoplates.  相似文献   
9.
Present study is devoted to analyze the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) squeezed flow of nanofluid over a sensor surface. Modeling of the problem is based on the geometry and the interaction of three different kinds of metallic nanoparticles namely: copper (Cu), alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) with the homogeneous mixture of base fluid (water). The self-similar numerical solutions are presented for the reduced form of the system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The effects of nanoparticles volume friction, permeable velocity and squeezing parameter for the flow and heat transfer within the boundary layer are presented through graphs. Comparison among the solvent are constructed for both skin friction and Nusselt number. Flow behavior of the working nanofluid according to the present geometry has analyzed through Stream lines. Conclusion is drawn on the basis of entire investigation and it is found that in squeezing flow phenomena Cu–water gives the better heat transfer performance as compare with the rest of mixtures.  相似文献   
10.
We have developed a novel approach for grafting coordination polymers, structured as nanoparticles bearing surface reactive carboxylic groups, to amino‐functionalized surfaces through a simple carbodiimide‐mediated coupling reaction. As a proof‐of‐concept to validate our approach, and on the quest for novel hybrid interphases with potential technological applications, we have used valence tautomeric nanoparticles exhibiting spin transition at or around room temperature. SEM and AFM characterization reveal that the nanoparticles were organized chiefly into a single monolayer while X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirm that the nanoparticles retain a temperature‐induced electronic redistribution upon surface anchorage. Our results represent an effective approach towards the challenging manufacture of coordination polymers.  相似文献   
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