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1.
A novel technique utilizing the adsorptive potential of immobilized multi‐walled carbon nanotubes (I‐MWCNT) in hollow fiber liquid‐phase microextraction (HF‐LPME) was developed for the determination of diuretics in urine. In this study, the potential of carbon nanotubes as a sorbent for three‐phase liquid‐phase microextraction of diuretics from urine samples was evaluated. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS). A novel method was applied to detect acetazolamide (AAA), chlorothiazide (CTA), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), hydroflumethiazide (HFT), clopamide (CA), trichlormethiazide (TCM), althiazide (AT) and bendroflumethiazide (BFT) in urine. Two‐step extractions using different times and temperatures for each step were adopted. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, including the extraction solvent, sample pH, salt concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature were systematically optimized. Under the resulting optimal extraction conditions, this method showed good linearity over an analytes concentration range of 1 to 1000 ng/mL, high extraction repeatability with relative standard deviations of less than 6%, and low detection limits (0.09 to 0.51 ng/mL). The application of the methods to the determination of diuretics in real samples was tested by analyzing urine samples of patient.  相似文献   
2.
An efficient and sensitive analytical method based on molecularly imprinted solid‐phase extraction (MISPE) and reverse‐phase ultrasound‐assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (USA‐DLLME) coupled with LC–MS/MS detection was developed and validated for the analysis of urinary 4‐(methylnitrosamino)‐1‐(3‐pyridyl)‐1‐butanol (NNAL), a tobacco‐specific nitrosamine metabolite. The extraction performances of NNAL on three different solid‐phase extraction (SPE) sorbents including the hydrophilic‐lipophilic balanced sorbent HLB, the mixed mode cationic MCX sorbent and the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) sorbent were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the analyte was well retained with the highest extraction recovery and the optimum purification effect on MIP. Under the optimized conditions of MIP and USA‐DLLME, an enrichment factor of 23 was obtained. Good linearity relationship was obtained in the range of 5‐1200 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9953. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.35 pg/mL. The recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 88.5% and 93.7%. Intra‐ and inter‐day relative standard deviations varied from 3.6% to 7.4% and from 5.4% to 9.7%, respectively. The developed method combing the advantages of MISPE and DLLME significantly improves the purification and enrichment of the analyte and can be used as an effective approach for the determination of ultra‐trace NNAL in complex biological matrices.  相似文献   
3.
Efficient method for direct preparation of 14‐aryl‐14‐H‐dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes through condensation of β‐naphthol with various aromatic aldehydes in the presence of the catalytic amount of [H—NMP]+[HSO4]? under microwave irradiation was described. This method has the advantages such as; very easy reaction workup, absolute separation of catalyst from the reaction mixture and smooth recyclability of catalyst. In this reaction 14‐aryl‐14‐H‐dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes were obtained as desired products in excellent yields and short reaction times via green and one‐pot procedure.  相似文献   
4.
In present work, the ionic liquid, 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide was incorporated in the carbon paste electrode as the binder (IL‐CPE). O‐anisidine (OA) monomer is electropolymerized in the presence of an aqueous acidic solution onto IL‐CPE (POA/IL‐CPE). The as‐prepared substrate is used as a porous matrix for dispersion of Ni(II) ions by immersing the modified electrode in a nickel(II) nitrite solution. The modified electrodes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The POA/IL‐CPE was applied successfully to highly efficient (current density of 18.2 mA cm?2) electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium. Finally, the rate constant for chemical reaction between formaldehyde and redox sites of the electrode was calculated.  相似文献   
5.
A new composite electrode has been fabricated based on coating multi‐walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and n‐octylpyridinum hexafluorophosphate (OPPF6) ionic liquid composite on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode (OPPF6‐MWCNTs/GCE). This electrode shows very attractive electrochemical performances for electrooxidation of risperidone (RIS) compared to conventional electrodes using carbon and mineral oil, notably improved sensitivity and stability. The oxidation peak potentials in cyclic voltammogram of RIS on the OPPF6‐MWCNTs/GCE was occurred around 230 mV vs. SCE at Britton–Robinson (B–R) buffer (pH 4.0) at scan rate of 100 mV s?1. The electrochemical parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D), charge transfer coefficient (α) and the electron transfer rate constant (k/s) were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Under the optimized conditions, the peak current was linear to risperidone concentration over the concentration range of 10–200 nM with sensitivity of 0.016 μA/nM?1 using differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limit was 6.54 nM (S/N = 3). The electrode also displayed good selectivity and repeatability. In the presence of clozapine (CLZ) the response of RIS kept almost unchanged. Thus this electrode could find application in the determination of RIS in some real samples. The analytical performance of the OPPF6‐MWCNTs/GCE was demonstrated for the determination of RIS in human serum and pharmaceutical samples.  相似文献   
6.
In this study, a method of dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with the flame atomic absorption spectrometry was proposed for the determination of trace Hg using diphenylthiocarbazone as chelating reagent. Several factors which have effect on the microextraction efficiency of Hg, such as pH, extraction and dispersive solvent type and their volume, concentration of the chelating agent, extraction time were investigated, and the optimized experimental conditions were established. After extraction, the enrichment factor was 68. The detection limit of the method was 45 ng mL?1, and the relative standard deviation for eight determinations of 2 μg mL?1 Hg was 1.7%. The results for the determination of Hg in environmental water samples (tap water, well water, mineral water and Caspian sea water) have demonstrated the applicability of the proposed method.  相似文献   
7.
Retention behaviors of alkyl phosophates were studied on a series of ionic liquid gas chromatography columns. The selectivity of the IL columns for alkyl phosphates were compared with a 5% phenyl column as a route to evaluating the potential use of IL columns in the analysis of alkyl phosphates in petroleum samples in both one- and multi-dimensional GC. Most interestingly, we demonstrate for the first time the dependence of elution order on separation temperature for members of a homologous series of compounds. At low temperatures it was found that trihexyl phosphate eluted before trioctyl phosphate, while at higher temperatures this pattern was reversed.  相似文献   
8.
Protein structure and dynamics can be characterized on the atomistic level with both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here, we quantify the ability of the recently presented CHARMM36 (C36) force field (FF) to reproduce various NMR observables using MD simulations. The studied NMR properties include backbone scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and relaxation order parameter, as well as scalar couplings, RDCs, and order parameters for side‐chain amino‐ and methyl‐containing groups. It is shown that the C36 FF leads to better correlation with experimental data compared to the CHARMM22/CMAP FF and suggest using C36 in protein simulations. Although both CHARMM FFs contains the same nonbond parameters, our results show how the changes in the internal parameters associated with the peptide backbone via CMAP and the χ1 and χ2 dihedral parameters leads to improved treatment of the analyzed nonbond interactions. This highlights the importance of proper treatment of the internal covalent components in modeling nonbond interactions with molecular mechanics FFs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
9.
A simple and economical CE method has been developed for the analysis of four model basic proteins by employing N‐methyl‐2‐pyrrolidonium methyl sulfonate ionic liquid (IL) as the dynamic coating material based on the interaction of both between electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bond, and between the organic cations of IL and the inner surface of bare fused‐silica capillary. The N‐methyl‐2‐pyrrolidonium‐based IL modified capillary not only generated a stable suppressed electroosmotic flow, but also effectively eliminated the wall adsorption of proteins. Several important parameters such as the IL concentration, pH values, and concentrations of the background electrolyte were optimized to improve the separation of basic proteins. Consequently, under the optimum separation conditions, a satisfied separation of basic proteins including lysozyme, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A, and α‐chymotrypsinogen A with theoretical plates ranging from 2.09 × 105 to 4.48 × 105 plates/m had been accomplished within 15 min. The proposed method first illustrated the effect of hydrogen bond between coating material and inner capillary surface on the coating, which should be a new strategy to design and select more effective coating materials to form more stable coatings in CE.  相似文献   
10.
A classical molecular mechanics force field, able to simulate coordination polymers (CP) based on ruthenium carboxylates (Ru2(O2CReq)4Lax) (eq = equatorial group containing aliphatic chains, Lax= axial ligand), has been developed. New parameters extracted from experimental data and quantum calculations on short aliphatic chains model systems were included in the generalized AMBER force field. The proposed parametrization was evaluated using model systems with known structure, containing either short or long aliphatic chains; experimental results were reproduced satisfactorily. This modified force field, although in a preliminary stage, could then be applied to long chain liquid crystalline compounds. The resulting atomistic simulations allowed assessing the relative influence of the factors determining the CP conformation, determinant for the physical properties of these materials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
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