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1.
The substituent- and solvent-induced shifts in UV-visible absorption bands of naphthyl-ester nematic liquid crystals, viz., 4-octylphenyl-6-octyloxy-2-naphthoate (NAPHE1) and 6-octyloxy-2-naphthylyl-4-octyloxybenzoate (NAPHE2), have been investigated using the DFT, CNDO/S and INDO/S methods. A correlation has been made between molecular charge distribution and phase stability based on Mulliken, Loewdin, AM1, PM3, MNDO, CNDO/S and INDO/S methods. The observed π→π* and n→π* electronic transitions have been reported. The substituent- and solvent-induced shifts in absorption bands, transition energies and energy gaps have been discussed. The photosensitivity of the molecules has been analysed based on these shifts. It has been observed that the substituent has a dominant role on both absorption maxima and energy band gap, whereas the solvent has a dominant role only on absorption maxima, and no effect has been observed on the energy gap. These shifts may provide beneficial consequences in determining the end use of compounds.  相似文献   
2.
Using a photoelastic modulator‐based novel set‐up, the electric field‐induced in‐plane birefringence and the optical rotatory power (ORP) were measured of an antiferroelectric liquid crystalline compound (12OF1M7) in its various phases using 30 µm homeotropic cells. Some specific signatures of the in‐plane birefringence and of the ORP for the various phases are being established. A relatively small threshold field is needed for the unwinding process of the antiferroelectric phase with a unit cell of four layers [SmCA*(1/2)] compared with that for two layers [SmCA*(0)]. On application of the electric field on the high temperature side of the SmCA*(1/2) phase (80.1–81.5°C), a field‐induced phase transition is shown to occur directly to the SmC* phase, whereas on the lower temperature side (79.4–80.1°C) the transition takes place to SmC* via the SmCA*(1/3) phase. The in‐plane birefringence exhibits a critical power law dependence for the SmC*–SmA transition. The ORP changes sign within the temperature range of the phase with a unit cell of three layers, reflecting a change in the handedness during this phase. Using tilted conoscopy, the results for the biaxiality and the apparent tilt angle for a smectic liquid crystal with a tilt angle greater than 18° in the ferroelectric phase are reported. The biaxiality implies the difference in the refractive indices between the two minor axes of the refractive index ellipsoid. The optical transmittance at visible and IR wavelengths for free‐standing films reveal characteristic reflection bands for these phases. The modulated structures of the reflected bands appear just above the SmCA* phase and below SmCA*(1/3); these are possibly due to an easy deformation of the phase by the surfaces.  相似文献   
3.
This study compared the fracture strength of Class II slot cavities restored with polymerizable restorative materials. Sixty, caries-free, posterior teeth were divided into five groups of 12 teeth. The Class II slot cavities were prepared. The teeth were restored with two packable composites (Filtek P60, Surefil), a microhybrid composite (Filtek Z250)and two ormocer (Definite, Admira). The restorations were then subjected to fracture resistance tests. The marginal ridges of the restorations were loaded at an angle of 13.5° to the long axis of the tooth in an Universal Testing Machine until failure. Analysis of mean forces indicated that, Filtek P60, Surefil and Filtek Z250 exhibited better performance than Definite and Admira. The tested resin composites differed in their mechanical properties. This study suggested that fracture behavior were highly influenced by the filler system. Overall, Filtek P60, Surefil, Filtek Z250, demonstrated good fracture resistance. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
基于水泥砂浆试样动态劈裂拉伸实验,研究了不同加载速率下水泥砂浆材料动态劈裂时的裂纹发 生和扩展规律,提出一个微观力学模型。结果表明,微裂纹惯性是混凝土类材料动态拉伸实验中测量到的动 态拉伸强度随应变率的增加而提高的一种微观机制。  相似文献   
5.

Milled carbon fibers (MCF) have been tested at 2, 4, and 6 phr in a standard natural rubber compound with 45 phr of N375 carbon black. A dramatic increase in the low elongation moduli was observed even with only 2 phr of MCF. The presence of MCF confers anisotropic properties to the rubber compounds that can be measured by an anisotropic factor σ, defined as the ratio between the modulus parallel to the MCF prevalent direction over the modulus orthogonal to the MCF prevalent direction. It has been shown that the presence of MCF is able to reduce the mechanical hysteresis and also the compression set of the natural rubber compound. However, the tear strength properties are affected negatively. The present study demonstrates the feasibility and the advantages derived by the utilization of the carbon fibers as extra reinforcing filler in rubber compounds.  相似文献   
6.
In the present report, a bioactive glass was synthesized from silica sand as economic substitute to alkoxy silane reagents. Sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) obtained from the sand was hydrolyzed and gelled using appropriate reagents before sintering at 950 °C for 3 h to produce glass in the system SiO2? Na2O? CaO? P2O5. Compression test was conducted to investigate the mechanical strength of the glass, while immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) was used to evaluate reactivity, bioactivity and degradability. Furthermore, the glass samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDX) to evaluate the microstructure and confirm apatite formation on the glass surface. The glass, dominated by bioactive sodium calcium silicate, Na2Ca2Si3O9 (combeite) crystals, had mechanical strength of 0.37 MPa and showed potentials for application as scaffold in bone repair.  相似文献   
7.
The effect of magnetic field on electron energy spectrum, wave functions and probabilities of intraband quantum transitions in multilayered spherical quantum-dot-quantum-well (QDQW) CdSe/ZnS/CdSe/ZnS is studied. Computations are performed in the framework of the effective mass approximation and rectangular potential barriers model. The wave functions are expanded over the complete basis of functions obtained as exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for the electron in QDQW without the magnetic field.It is shown that magnetic field takes off the spectrum degeneration with respect to the magnetic quantum number and changes the localization of electron in the nanostructure. The field stronger effects on the spherically-symmetric states, especially in the case of electron location in the outer potential well. The magnetic field changes more the radial distribution of probability of electron location in QDQW than the angular one. The oscillator strengths of intraband quantum transitions are calculated as functions of the magnetic field induction and their selection rules are established.  相似文献   
8.
This study presents the mechanical characterization of the dry film photoresist PerMX and its adhesion properties when laminated onto Kapton® E (PI) and Melinex® ST506 (PET). Additionally, the processing temperature, the adhesion strength, and the neutral plane position are investigated and optimized. A relatively low-temperature (85 °C) process is developed to protect the integrity of the polymers with low glass transition temperature and reduce the thermal mismatch stress. Reduction in processing temperature led to a decrement in the adhesion strength. To counteract this unwanted effect, surface treatments (oxygen plasma) are performed on the polymer surface before lamination. Using the latter techniques, adhesion of PerMX to PET (hard bake: 1 h at 85 °C) is increased from 0.07 to 0.26 N mm−1 (variation of 270%). Finally, the mechanical robustness is investigated and increased by tuning the position of the neutral plane, after 50,000 bending cycles and a radius of curvature of 2.5 mm. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys, 2013  相似文献   
9.
单轴荷载下饱水岩石静态和动态抗压强度的细观力学分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
王斌  李夕兵 《爆炸与冲击》2012,32(4):423-431
由于单轴荷载下饱水岩石的动态力学特性与静态力学特性存在很大差异,从宏观上进行力学分析 存在局限性。根据岩石受压全应力应变曲线的细观机制,分析了静态及动态单轴荷载条件下孔隙水影响饱水 岩石裂纹扩展的情况。在静态单轴压缩条件下,初始裂隙受压使自由水产生孔隙水压力,自由水对翼裂纹有 向外挤压的应力,促进裂纹扩展。在动态单轴压缩条件下,自由水会产生粘结力,抑制裂纹扩展。根据翼裂纹 受压扩展原理,推导出饱水单轴条件下动态抗压强度、静态抗压强度的计算公式,在相同断裂韧度下,饱水岩 石静态抗压强度风干岩石静态抗压强度饱水岩石动态抗压强度。对自然风干和饱水砂岩进行单轴静态、 动态压缩实验,结果与理论模型的结果相符。  相似文献   
10.
基于高频CO_2激光在普通单模光纤上制作的长周期光纤光栅的应变和弯曲特性,本文设计制作了一种新型的加速度传感器.基于等强度梁理论分析了梁振动与长周期光纤光栅输出光强之间的关系,最后推导出了系统的加速度理论模型.文中搭建了长周期光纤光栅加速度计的实验测量系统.实验结果表明系统的加速度灵敏度约为2.82 v/g,准确度约为8.96×10~(-4) g,加速度测量误差约为0.82%.基于这种长周期光纤光栅的加速度计具有成本低、灵敏度较高等优点,因此在振动测量、惯性导航等方面将具有较好的潜在应用价值.  相似文献   
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