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1.
Narrow band gap conjugated polymer zwitterions (CPZs) were synthesized by Suzuki polymerization and characterized to understand their electronic properties and utility as cathode modification layers in solar cells. The polymers were prepared from diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) and iso-indigo monomers containing sulfobetaine (SB) pendant groups, benefiting from an ion-rich aqueous phase in the polymerizations. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy revealed the optical energy gap value for the CPZs, ranging from 1.7 to 1.2 eV. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of the CPZs as thin layers on Ag metal showed that the pendent zwitterions impart an interfacial dipole (Δ) to the metal and a work function reduction of ∼0.9 eV. OPVs fabricated using a conventional bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device architecture of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/(PTB7:PC71BM)/CPZ/Ag led to dramatic improvements in power conversion efficiency (PCE) values relative to devices having bare Ag cathodes (PCE < 2% for bare Ag vs. 6.7–7.7% for CPZ/Ag). The benzothiadiazole (BT)/DPP polymer denoted as PT2BTDPPSB gave an optimal PCE of 7.7% in a conventional BHJ OPV device architecture fabricated on a Ag cathode. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2015 , 53, 327–336  相似文献   
2.
Fullerene‐based tetrads, triads, and dyads are presented in which [60]fulleropyrrolidine synthons are linked to an oligo(p‐phenyleneethynylene) antenna at the nitrogen atom and to electron‐donor phenothiazine (PTZ) and/or ferrocene (Fc) moieties at the α carbon of the pyrrolidine cycle through an acetylene spacer. Cyclic voltammetry and UV/ Vis absorption spectra evidence negligible ground‐state electronic interactions among the subunits. By contrast, strong excited‐state interactions are detected upon selective light irradiation of the antenna (UV) or of the fullerene scaffold (Vis). When only PTZ is present as electron donor, photoinduced electron transfer to the fullerene unit is unambiguously detected in benzonitrile, but this is not the case when Fc is part of the multicomponent system. These results suggest that Fc is a formidable energy transfer quencher and caution should be used in choosing it as electron donor to promote efficient charge separation in multicomponent arrays.  相似文献   
3.
We examine two formulations for the differential surface excitation parameter (DSEP): one provided by Tung et al. and the other given by the Chen–Kwei position‐dependent differential inverse inelastic mean free path integrated over the electron trajectory. We demonstrate that the latter converges to the former provided that the dielectric function of the solid does not depend on the momentum transfer or it depends on just the momentum transfer component parallel to the surface. Tung's DSEP represents therefore an approximation to the Chen–Kwei DSEP calculated for a dielectric function with no restrictions on the momentum dependence. The approximation is shown to work in the limit of small momentum transfer and to imply an error of 4%–5% for electrons traveling through the solid with energy E = 1 keV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
Structure, energetics, and vibrational frequency of the microhydrated carbonyl sulfide anion [OCS?? (H2O)n (n = 1–6)] have been explored by the systematic ab initio study to have a comprehensive understanding about the hydration‐induced stabilization phenomenon of OCS?. Water binds with the OCS? in single hydrogen‐bonded (SHB) or double hydrogen‐bonded (DHB) fashion with O? H S and O? H O contacts. Maximum five water molecules can stay in a cyclic water network of these hydrated clusters forming interwater hydrogen bonding (IHB) with each other and out of this, maximum of two water molecules can bind directly to the OCS? in (DHB) arrangement. The stabilization energy values of OCS?? (H2O)n depict that ion–water interaction is significant up to four water molecules and beyond that OCS? is stabilized by IHB between the water molecules. The CO stretching frequency of OCS? gets red shifted, whereas CS stretching frequency gets blue shifted on hydration. Charge analysis of hydrated clusters of OCS? indicates that negative charge moves toward oxygen from sulfur on hydration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
5.
Unique hollow‐caged (MN4)nC6(10 ? n) (M = Zn, Mg, Fe, n = 1?6) complexes designed by introduction of n porphyrinoid fragments in C60 fullerene structure were proposed and the atomic and electronic structures were calculated using LC‐DFT MPWB95 and M06 potentials and 6‐311G(d)/6‐31G(d) basis sets. The complexes were optimized using various symmetric configurations from the highest Oh to the lowest C1 point groups in different spin states from S = 0 (singlet) to S = 7 (quindectet) for M = Fe to define energetically preferable atomic and electronic structures. Several metastable complexes were determined and the key role of the metal ions in stabilization of the atomic structure of the complexes was revealed. For Fe6N24C24, the minimum energy was reported for C2h, D2h, and D4h symmetry of pentet state S = 2, so the complex can be regarded as unique molecular magnet. It was found that the metal partial density of states determine the nature of HOMO and LUMO levels making the clusters promising catalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
6.
We describe the synthesis and the physical properties of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing a phosphorus atom at the edge. In particular, the impact of the successive addition of aromatic rings on the electronic properties was investigated by experimental (UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry) and theoretical studies (DFT). The physical properties recorded in solution and in the solid state showed that the P‐containing PAHs exhibit properties expected for an emitter in white organic light‐emitting diodes (WOLEDs).  相似文献   
7.
Perovskite oxides of the Ln0.5A0.5MnO3 (Ln=lanthanide, A=Sr, Ca) family have been investigated for the thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to produce H2 and CO respectively. The amounts of O2 and CO produced strongly depend on the size of the rare earth ions and alkaline earth ions. The manganite with the smallest rare earth possessing the highest distortion and size disorder as well as the smallest tolerance factor, gives out the maximum amount of O2, and, hence, the maximum amount of CO. Thus, the best results are found with Y0.5Sr0.5MnO3, which possesses the highest distortion and size disorder. Y0.5Sr0.5MnO3 shows remarkable fuel production activity even at the reduction and oxidation temperatures as low as 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.  相似文献   
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Using first-principles plane-wave calculations within density functional theory, we theoretically studied the atomic structure, bonding energy and electronic properties of the perfect Mo (110)/MoSe2 (100) interface with a lattice mismatch less than 4.2%. Compared with the perfect structure, the interface is somewhat relaxed, and its atomic positions and bond lengths change slightly. The calculated interface bonding energy is about −1.2 J/m2, indicating that this interface is very stable. The MoSe2 layer on the interface has some interface states near the Fermi level, the interface states are mainly caused by Mo 4d orbitals, while the Se atom almost have no contribution. On the interface, Mo-5s and Se-4p orbitals hybridize at about −6.5 to −5.0 eV, and Mo-4d and Se-4p orbitals hybridize at about −5.0 to −1.0 eV. These hybridizations greatly improve the bonding ability of Mo and Se atom in the interface. By Bader charge analysis, we find electron redistribution near the interface which promotes the bonding of the Mo and MoSe2 layer.  相似文献   
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