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1.
A novel technique utilizing the adsorptive potential of immobilized multi‐walled carbon nanotubes (I‐MWCNT) in hollow fiber liquid‐phase microextraction (HF‐LPME) was developed for the determination of diuretics in urine. In this study, the potential of carbon nanotubes as a sorbent for three‐phase liquid‐phase microextraction of diuretics from urine samples was evaluated. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS). A novel method was applied to detect acetazolamide (AAA), chlorothiazide (CTA), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), hydroflumethiazide (HFT), clopamide (CA), trichlormethiazide (TCM), althiazide (AT) and bendroflumethiazide (BFT) in urine. Two‐step extractions using different times and temperatures for each step were adopted. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, including the extraction solvent, sample pH, salt concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature were systematically optimized. Under the resulting optimal extraction conditions, this method showed good linearity over an analytes concentration range of 1 to 1000 ng/mL, high extraction repeatability with relative standard deviations of less than 6%, and low detection limits (0.09 to 0.51 ng/mL). The application of the methods to the determination of diuretics in real samples was tested by analyzing urine samples of patient.  相似文献   
2.
Surface treatment (ST) of carbon fibers (CF) leads to an enhancement in fiber‐matrix adhesion. However, it deteriorates the strength of a fiber which makes its reinforcing action less effective in a composite. These effects in opposite directions control the net strength of a composite, and hence, the treatment has to be judiciously applied, which would enhance the first factor and minimize the second one. Authors have recently reported on four effective techniques (using various doses) such as treatments with nanoparticles of Ytterbium fluoride (YbF3), cold remote nitrogen–oxygen plasma (CRNOP), γ‐ray irradiation and nitric acid oxidation. Amongst these methods, nitric acid oxidation is studied in depth in the literature, and γ‐ray irradiation is sparingly studied. However, nano‐YbF3 and CRNOP were first time reported in the literature by the authors. However, comparative aspects of all these methods were not addressed. In this paper, these aspects in details are discussed to lay down the right criteria for selection of a ST technique of CF to design the desired performance of a composite. The composites with polyetherimide and treated CF (including untreated) were developed and evaluated for various properties including tribological one. Treated CF based composites exhibited excellent mechanical and tribological properties (under harsh operative conditions with wear rates ≈ 1 × 10?15 m3/Nm and μ ≈ 0.09). It was concluded that for strength and tribo‐performance, different treatments and doses are to be employed. Overall nanosized‐YbF3 treatment of CF proved to be the most promising ST method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Three series of crosslinked octadecyl acrylate and acrylic acid copolymers were prepared through suspension copolymerization based on acrylic acid content (10, 30, 50%wt. ratio). Divinyl benzene (DVB) was used as a crosslinker with different weight ratios (1, 4 and 10%). Isopropyl alcohol or dioctyl phthalate and methyl benzoate were used as two different reaction solvents in the presence of ABIN as initiator. The prepared crosslinked copolymers were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The prepared polymers were coated onto poly(ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET). The effect of copolymerization feed composition, crosslinker wt% and reaction media or solvent on swelling properties of crosslinked polymers were studied through the oil absorption tests in toluene and 10% of diluted crude oil with toluene. It was noticed that the maximum swelling of crosslinked copolymers was increased from 30 to 100 g/g after grafting of copolymers onto NWPET.  相似文献   
4.
预测分析再生混凝土各组分对再生混凝土宏观力学参数的影响是开展再生混凝土基本力学性能的一种方式.为了分析再生混凝土各组分对再生混凝土宏观力学参数的影响,根据再生混凝土的细观结构组成,建立了细观等效模型,利用扭转变形、细观夹杂理论、弹性等效思想和M-T模型方法,推导了由原生骨料、老界面层、老水泥砂浆、新界面层和新水泥砂浆等组成的再生混凝土的宏观力学参数预测模型.预测结果表明,随着再生骨料的取代率增加,水泥砂浆的含量不断增加,再生混凝土孔隙率也随之增大,导致再生混凝土的Poisson比随之增大,弹性模量、剪切模量和体积模量不断降低.模型的预测结果较好地反映了再生混凝土宏观力学参数随再生骨料取代率的增加不断变化的这一趋势,也为再生混凝土宏观力学参数的预测提供了一条简单实用的新方法,有利于再生混凝土基本力学性能的研究分析.  相似文献   
5.
Derivatization at the injection port following hollow‐fiber‐based liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction with tetramethylammonium acetate as a dual‐function reagent, i.e. an acceptor and derivatization reagent, for the determination of benzoic acid (BA) and sorbic acid (SA) in real samples by GC was developed. BA and SA were extracted from aqueous samples to an organic phase impregnated into the pores of the hollow fiber wall, and then back‐extracted to the acceptor solution located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. Upon injection, the extracted analytes were quantitatively derivatized to their methyl esters with tetramethylammonium acetate in the GC injection port. Several parameters related to the derivatization and extraction efficiency were optimized. The linearity was satisfactory over a concentration range of 0.1–50 mg/L with r > 0.993 for both analytes. The LODs were 2.0 μg/L for SA and 20 μg/L for BA. The recoveries (83–116%) and precisions (RSDs of 1.2–11.4% (n = 3)) were examined by analyzing real spiked samples. The enrichment factors of BA and SA were 300 and 425. The results demonstrated that this is a simple, rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of BA and SA in various samples.  相似文献   
6.
以某大型全碎石填方机场工程为背景,针对早龄期混凝土受爆破振动损伤开展了实验研究。通过室内实验模拟场地爆破振动作用于早龄期混凝土试块,测量了不同龄期混凝土受振损伤后的强度。并将实验结果与有限元数值计算和现场爆破场地测试数据相结合,分析了早龄期混凝土损伤后的强度增长规律,建立了场地爆破与混凝土结构浇筑平行施工的安全技术指标。  相似文献   
7.
水下爆炸冲击荷载下混凝土重力坝的抗爆性能   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
在水下爆炸冲击荷载作用下,结构动力响应较之静态荷载和地震荷载作用下要复杂得多。通过大 量的数值模拟,探讨了混凝土重力坝在水下爆炸冲击荷载作用下,大坝高度、库前水位对大坝抗爆性能的影 响,为大坝抗爆性能评估和防护设计提供基础。数值计算中,构建了重力坝水下爆炸全耦合数值模型,并考虑 爆炸冲击作用下混凝土的高应变率效应。研究结果表明:对于混凝土重力坝,随着大坝高度的增加,大坝的抗 爆性能增强;库前水位对大坝的抗爆性能影响较大,通过降低库前水位可有效提高大坝的抗爆性能。  相似文献   
8.
Abstract

This article presents a theoretical study of the dispersion properties of the asymmetrically apodized fiber Bragg gratings. It is shown that the dispersive behavior of these gratings may be changed from normal to anomalous, depending on the apodization function and the grating strength. The asymmetrical Bessel functions were chosen in order to demonstrate these properties of the gratings. The application of this effect in a dispersion-less Fabry-Pérot fiber cavity formed by two asymmetrically apodized fiber Bragg gratings is discussed.  相似文献   
9.
Abstract

This article presents experimental results demonstrating the performance of an erbium-doped silica fiber as a remote temperature sensor in the interval from 20°C to 200°C. The sensor is based on the change in the fluorescence intensity ratio of two spectral bands as a function of temperature. The green fluorescence signal was generated by up-conversion processes in the erbium-doped fiber pumped at 975 nm. A radiometric analysis was applied to the erbium-doped fiber to evaluate its performance as a temperature sensor, and the results from this analysis were compared against other rare-earth-doped fiber sensors that utilize the intensity ratio technique.  相似文献   
10.
A mathematical formalism related to the approximate as well as the accurate interferometric data reduction schemes is briefly outlined and subsequently applied in the reconstruction of the assumed (Luneburg) axisymmetric refractive index distribution. The presented comparative analysis confirms the generally held opinion that the approximate methods (“straight-line” and Kokubun-Iga approaches) may provide quite reasonable results in the examination of refractively inhomogeneous disturbances characterized by weak gradient and moderate index variation. On the other hand, the accurate scheme for transverse interferometric data interpretation and reduction, based on the close-form correlation between the fringe shift and the deflection function, [1] remains the only method for reliable reconstruction of strongly refracting index profiles, independently of magnitude of refraction and ambiguity of the fringes. This fact is of considerable importance for transverse interferometry of fibers (preform rods) and/or GRIN-rod lenses characterized by high numerical apertures.  相似文献   
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