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1.
The tetramer destabilization of transthyretin into monomers and its fibrillation are phenomena leading to amyloid deposition. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) has been found in all amyloid deposits. A chromatographic approach was developed to compare binding parameters between wild‐type transthyretin (wtTTR) and an amyloidogenic transthyretin (sTTR). Results showed a greater affinity of sTTR for HSPG at pH 7.4 compared with wtTTR owing to the monomeric form of sTTR. Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters showed that van der Waals interactions were involved at the complex interface for both transthyretin forms. For sTTR, results from the plot representing the number of protons exchanged vs pH showed that the binding mechanism was pH‐dependent with a critical value at a pH 6.5. This observation was due to the protonation of a histidine residue as an imidazolium cation, which was not accessible when TTR was in its tetrameric structure. At pH >6.5, dehydration at the binding interface and several contacts between nonpolar groups of sTTR and HSPG were also coupled to binding for an optimal hydrogen‐bond network. At pH <6.5, the protonation of the His residue from sTTR monomer when pH decreased broke the hydrogen‐bond network, leading to its destabilization and thus producing slight conformational changes in the sTTR monomer structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
This work deals with the prediction and experimental measurements of the (solid + liquid) equilibrium (SLE) in acid medium for industrial purposes. Specific systems including KCl–ethanol–water–HCl and K2SO4–water–H2SO4 were analyzed. At first, a critical discussion of SLE calculations was given, based on the well-known UNIQUAC extended and LIQUAC models. Two new proposals were derived, considering the explicit necessity of a new reference state for SLE calculations for the studied (solvents + acid) mixtures. The solubility of KCl in water–ethanol–HCl mixed solvents was measured in the temperature range of 300.15 to 315.15 K using an analytical gravimetric method. These results combined with some other experimental data reported in the open literature let us to propose a set of parameters for the new models. They included the interaction parameters between ethanol and the H+ ion. The prediction capability of the new models, for calculations in acid medium, was illustrated. Experimentally, it was observed that the (K2SO4 + water + H2SO4) system presented the unusual behavior of increasing K2SO4 solubility with an increase in the sulfuric acid concentration. This was accurately predicted by the newly proposed models.  相似文献   
3.
4.
In this work, a CE method with bare gold nanorods (GNRs) based pseudostationary phase was developed and applied for the separation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) isomers, CS, and dermatan sulfate (DS). The separation efficiency was investigated by varying the experimental parameters such as concentration and pH of the BGE, separation voltage, internal diameter of capillary, different size, and morphology of gold nanomaterials. Results showed that different size and morphology of gold nanomaterials had different effects on the separation of CS and DS. The best separation of CS and DS was achieved in the BGE composed of aqueous 150 mmol/L (mM) ethylenediamine + 20 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate + 30% v/v GNRs, pH 4.5, at the separation voltage of ?10 kV. Capillary was 59.2 cm in length (effective length 49 cm), 50 μm id capillary thermostated at 25°C. CE with bare GNRs used as pseudostationary phase was shown to be a suitable technique for the separation of CS and DS mixtures with wider peaks. RSD of migration time and peak area of CS and DS were 0.13, 0.14 and 0.86, 1.07%, respectively.  相似文献   
5.
D4020 resin offered the best dynamic adsorption and desorption capacity for total flavonoids based on the research results from ten kinds of macroporous resin. A column packed with D4020 resin was used to optimize the separation of total flavonoids from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze extracts. The content of flavonoids in the product was increased from 4.3 to 30.1% with a recovery yield of 90%. After the treatment with gradient elution on D4020 resin, the contents of isorhamnetin 3‐sulfate and astragalin were increased from 0.49 to 8.70% with a recovery yield of 74.1% and 1.16 to 30.8%, with a recovery yield of 92.2%, respectively. Further purification was carried out by one‐run high‐speed countercurrent chromatography yielding 4.5 mg of isorhamnetin 3‐sulfate at a high purity of 96.48% and yielding 24.4 mg of astragalin at a high purity of over 98.46%.  相似文献   
6.
The influence of Na2HPO4·12H2O on the hydrothermal formation of hemihydrate calcium sulfate (CaSO4·0.5H2O) whiskers from dihydrate calcium sulfate (CaSO4·2H2O) at 135 °C was investigated. Experimental results indicate that the addition of phosphorus accelerates the hydrothermal conversion of CaSO4·2H2O to CaSO4·0.5H2O via the formation of Ca3(PO4)2 and produces CaSO4·0.5H2O whiskers with thinner diameters and shorter lengths. Compared with the blank experiment without Na2HPO4·12H2O, the existence of minor amounts (8.65 × 10−4–4.36 × 10−3 mol/L) of Na2HPO4·12H2O led to a decrease in the diameter of CaSO4·0.5H2O whiskers from 1.0–10.0 to 0.5–2.0 μm and lengths from 70–300 to 50–200 μm.  相似文献   
7.
The solubility of sodium 3-sulfobenzoate in binary (sodium chloride + water), (sodium sulfate + water), and (ethanol + water) solvent mixtures was measured at elevated temperatures from (278.15 to 323.15) K by a steady-state method. The results of these experiments were correlated by a modified Apelblat equation. The dissolution enthalpy and entropy of sodium 3-sulfobenzoate in aqueous solutions of different mole fraction were obtained.  相似文献   
8.
A new polymorph of Bi2(SO4)3 was prepared by reaction of LiBiO2 with H2SO4 and its crystal structure was solved from X-ray powder diffraction. This new polymorph crystallizes in C2/c space group with lattice parameters a = 17.3383(3) Å, b = 6.77803(12) Å, c = 8.30978(13) Å, β = 101.4300(12)°. Bi2(SO4)3 presents a layered structure made of SO4 sulfate groups and signs of stereochemically active Bi3+ lone pairs. The new Bi2(SO4)3 absorbs water to form Bi2(H2O)2(SO4)2(OH)2 through an intermediate Bi2O(OH)2SO4 phase, and the transition is reversible when heated under vacuum.  相似文献   
9.
The one‐dimensional coordination polymer catena‐poly[diaqua(sulfato‐κO)copper(II)]‐μ2‐glycine‐κ2O:O′], [Cu(SO4)(C2H5NO2)(H2O)2]n, (I), was synthesized by slow evaporation under vacuum of a saturated aqueous equimolar mixture of copper(II) sulfate and glycine. On heating the same blue crystal of this complex to 435 K in an oven, its aspect changed to a very pale blue and crystal structure analysis indicated that it had transformed into the two‐dimensional coordination polymer poly[(μ2‐glycine‐κ2O:O′)(μ4‐sulfato‐κ4O:O′:O′′:O′′)copper(II)], [Cu(SO4)(C2H5NO2)]n, (II). In (I), the CuII cation has a pentacoordinate square‐pyramidal coordination environment. It is coordinated by two water molecules and two O atoms of bridging glycine carboxylate groups in the basal plane, and by a sulfate O atom in the apical position. In complex (II), the CuII cation has an octahedral coordination environment. It is coordinated by four sulfate O atoms, one of which bridges two CuII cations, and two O atoms of bridging glycine carboxylate groups. In the crystal structure of (I), the one‐dimensional polymers, extending along [001], are linked via N—H...O, O—H...O and bifurcated N—H...O,O hydrogen bonds, forming a three‐dimensional framework. In the crystal structure of (II), the two‐dimensional networks are linked via bifurcated N—H...O,O hydrogen bonds involving the sulfate O atoms, forming a three‐dimensional framework. In the crystal structures of both compounds, there are C—H...O hydrogen bonds present, which reinforce the three‐dimensional frameworks.  相似文献   
10.
Fouling of heat exchanger surfaces during sugar manufacture reduces productivity and increases energy demand. This study characterizes a deposit (including its internal structure) formed in a sugar factory's evaporator unit using a variety of X‐ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques (including X‐ray powder diffraction, X‐ray fluorescence, elemental mapping with energy dispersive spectroscopy and backscattered electron imaging). Calcium sulfate dihydrate, calcium oxalate mono‐ and dihydrate, hydroxyapatite, amorphous silica and organic matter are present in the deposit. The composition of the deposit (which contains three layers) varies along the height of the tube. There are noticeable differences in the composition and porosity among the layers in the deposit. A porous structure consisting of a mixture of amorphous silica, calcium oxalate dihydrate and organic matter is attached to the surface of the deposit in contact with sugar juice, while a denser morphology of amorphous silica and hydroxyapatite is attached to the tube wall. Elemental mapping identifies an association between Si, Al, Mg, Fe and O, suggesting the presence of a silicate compound as a minor component in the deposit. An attempt is made to rationalize the formation of the observed phases. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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