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1.
Heterogeneous catalysts were developed by supporting palladium nanoparticles on modified cross‐linked polyacrylamide and successfully applied in Suzuki‐Miyaura cross‐coupling reactions. These catalysts are stable to air and moisture, and no sign of metal leaching was detected during the reactions as judged by elemental analysis of palladium by ICP‐OES technique and hot filtration test, which demonstrates the heterogeneous character of the catalysts. High yields of desired products were resulted by using these phosphine‐free catalysts at temperatures below 80 °C without aid of any additional ligands. The heat stability of the catalysts at the operating temperature was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These catalysts are easy to use and cost effective. They can be recovered from reaction mixture by a simple filtration and reused in more successive reactions without significant loss in activity. The catalyst activity was restored by an ultrasonication program after deactivation in 10 cycles.  相似文献   
2.
A series of β‐hydroxynitriles were efficiently synthesized from the regioselective ring opening of oxiranes by cyanide anion in the presence of silica‐bound 3‐{2‐[poly(ethylene glycol)]ethyl}‐substituted 1‐methyl‐1H‐imidazol‐3‐ium bromide (SiO2? PEG? ImBr) as a novel recoverable phase‐transfer catalyst in H2O (Scheme 1 and Table 2). The workup procedure was straightforward, and the catalyst could be reused over four times with almost no loss of catalytic activity and selectivity.  相似文献   
3.
In asymmetric Michael addition between ketones and nitroolefins catalyzed by L ‐proline, we observed that it was benzoic acid or its derivatives rather than other proton acid that could accelerate the reaction greatly, and different benzoic acid derivatives brought different yields. To explain the experimental phenomena, a density functional theory study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of proline‐catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition with benzoic acid. The results of the theoretical calculation at the level of B3LYP/6‐311+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6‐31G(d) demonstrated that benzoic acid played two major roles in the formation of nitroalkane: assisting proton transfer and activating the nitro group. In the stage of enamine formation from imine, the energy profiles of benzoic acid derivatives were also calculated to investigate the reasons why different benzoic acid derivatives caused different yields. The results demonstrated that the pKa value was the major factor for p‐substituted benzoic acid derivatives to improve the yields, whereas for m/o‐substituted benzoic acid derivatives, both pKa value and electronic and steric effects could significantly increase the yields. The calculated results would be very helpful for understanding the reaction mechanism of Michael addition and provide some insights into the selection of efficient additives for similar experiments. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
4.
Experimental studies show that copper complexes can be effectively anchored onto the pores of mesoporous solids, having a good catalytic performance in several reactions, among them the aziridination of olefins and in particular, styrene. In this work, the mechanism of the aziridination of styrene catalyzed by a bis(oxazoline) copper(I) complex was studied in detail by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For such reactions in the homogeneous phase, our calculations revealed a wide diversity of reaction‐pathways, which have not been considered in previous studies, and should be taken into account due to the small energy differences between them. What is more, our results show that there is a strong dependence on the chosen DFT functional. This has profound implications on the way the heterogeneous reaction is studied. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
5.
A series of novel substituted 3,4‐dihydro‐2H‐1,3‐benzoxazines were prepared in moderate to good yields by aza‐acetalizations of aromatic aldehydes with 2‐(N‐substituted aminomethyl)phenols in the presence of chlorotrimethylsilane or SnCl4. It was found that chlorotrimethylsilane was more effective for the reaction, especially for the reaction of fluorobenzaldehyde, and thereby, an efficient method for the preparation of 3,4‐dihydro‐2H‐1,3‐benzoxazines was developed. The structures of the compounds were determined by FT‐IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and elemental analysis.  相似文献   
6.
Cationic Rh(II) complexes are able to catalyze the regioselective hydroamination of propargyl ureas in a 6-endo fashion. This transformation permits access to interesting substitution patterns of dihydropyrimidines, which have found use as nucleotide exchange factor inhibitors.  相似文献   
7.
我们以4,5-双四唑咪唑(H3BTI)为能量配体,利用水热法构筑了一例新型含能配合物[Co4(HBTI)4(H2O)8](1)。晶体结构测定表明配合物1呈中心对称的四核结构,中心离子Co(Ⅱ)呈六配位的八面体几何构型。此外,结合Kissinger和Ozawa-Doyle两种方法对1进行非等温热动力学分析,并基于密度泛函理论计算出1的爆轰性能相关参数。配合物1的摩擦感度高于360 N,且撞击感度高于40 J。配合物1可同时催化高氯酸铵(AP)和1,3,5-三硝基-1,3,5-三嗪烷(RDX)的燃烧分解反应,其分解温度分别提前了25和11℃。  相似文献   
8.
以泡沫镍(NF)为基底,采用一步水热法制备了主晶相为CoS2、夹杂少量NiO相、具有三维多孔风叶结构的CoS2/NF电极材料。当溶液中钴硫物质的量之比为1∶5时,在140℃下保温18 h,获得了由10 nm厚度的纳米片构成的三维风叶结构的晶态CoS2/NF电催化剂。CoS2/NF在肼氧化及析氢反应中均表现出优异的催化性能,在水合肼碱性介质中,获得-10 mA·cm-2的析氢电流密度时,需要的过电势仅为83 mV,获得50 mA·cm-2的氧化电流密度时,需要的肼氧化电位仅为51 mV(vs RHE);在水合肼辅助电解水双功能电解槽中,获得100 mA·cm-2的电流密度时,需要的分解槽压仅为0.550 V,远低于其在同条件下全水分解的2.075 V,大幅减小了电能消耗,极大地提高了电解水产氢效率。无论在三电极体系还是双电极体系,CoS2/NF均表现出优异的长效稳定性及耐用性。分析认为,电极表面多孔风叶结构的形成,...  相似文献   
9.
CO2的过量排放导致温室效应对环境的影响越来越严重,通过电催化、光催化、热催化、光热催化或光电催化将CO2还原成高附加值的化学品是解决CO2排放的有效途径.其中, CO2的光热催化转化是当前的主要研究领域之一.我们对光热催化进行了总结分类:热助光、光助热、光驱热和光热协同催化,并详细介绍相应的催化机理,总结了金属催化剂用于光热催化CO2还原的最新研究进展,最后提出了光热催化面临的挑战与展望.  相似文献   
10.
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