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1.
Weijin Li 《中国物理 B》2022,31(8):80503-080503
Aiming at training the feed-forward threshold neural network consisting of nondifferentiable activation functions, the approach of noise injection forms a stochastic resonance based threshold network that can be optimized by various gradient-based optimizers. The introduction of injected noise extends the noise level into the parameter space of the designed threshold network, but leads to a highly non-convex optimization landscape of the loss function. Thus, the hyperparameter on-line learning procedure with respective to network weights and noise levels becomes of challenge. It is shown that the Adam optimizer, as an adaptive variant of stochastic gradient descent, manifests its superior learning ability in training the stochastic resonance based threshold network effectively. Experimental results demonstrate the significant improvement of performance of the designed threshold network trained by the Adam optimizer for function approximation and image classification.  相似文献   
2.
This paper infers from a generalized Picone identity the uniqueness of the stable positive solution for a class of semilinear equations of superlinear indefinite type, as well as the uniqueness and global attractivity of the coexistence state in two generalized diffusive prototypes of the symbiotic and competing species models of Lotka–Volterra. The optimality of these uniqueness theorems reveals the tremendous strength of the Picone identity.  相似文献   
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4.
To achieve efficient proton pumping in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the protein must be tightly coupled to the retinal to rapidly convert retinal isomerization into protein structural rearrangements. Methyl group dynamics of bR embedded in lipid nanodiscs were determined in the dark-adapted state, and were found to be mostly well ordered at the cytosolic side. Methyl groups in the M145A mutant of bR, which displays only 10 % residual proton pumping activity, are less well ordered, suggesting a link between side-chain dynamics on the cytosolic side of the bR cavity and proton pumping activity. In addition, slow conformational exchange, attributed to low frequency motions of aromatic rings, was indirectly observed for residues on the extracellular side of the bR cavity. This may be related to reorganization of the water network. These observations provide a detailed picture of previously undescribed equilibrium dynamics on different time scales for ground-state bR.  相似文献   
5.
We extend our previous results characterizing the loading properties of a diffusing passive scalar advected by a laminar shear flow in ducts and channels to more general cross‐sectional shapes, including regular polygons and smoothed corner ducts originating from deformations of ellipses. For the case of the triangle and localized, cross‐wise uniform initial distributions, short‐time skewness is calculated exactly to be positive, while long‐time asymptotics shows it to be negative. Monte Carlo simulations confirm these predictions, and document the timescale for sign change. The equilateral triangle appears to be the only regular polygon with this property—all others possess positive skewness at all times. Alternatively, closed‐form flow solutions can be constructed for smooth deformations of ellipses, and illustrate how both nonzero short‐time skewness and the possibility of multiple sign switching in time is unrelated to domain corners. Exact conditions relating the median and the skewness to the mean are developed which guarantee when the sign for the skewness implies front (more mass to the right of the mean) or back (more mass to the left of the mean) “loading” properties of the evolving tracer distribution along the pipe. Short‐ and long‐time asymptotics confirm this condition, and Monte Carlo simulations verify this at all times. The simulations are also used to examine the role of corners and boundaries on the distribution for short‐time evolution of point source , as opposed to cross‐wise uniform, initial data.  相似文献   
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7.
Recently, the potential use of organic π-radicals and related spin systems has been expanded to modern technological applications. The unique excited-state dynamics of organic π-radicals can be useful to improve the stability of photochemically unstable organic compounds, make the polarization transfer applicable to information technology, and achieve effective up-conversion of interest for luminescence bioimaging, among others. Furthermore, highly luminescent stable π-radicals have been recently reported, which are especially interesting for application in organic light-emitting devices owing to their potential to provide an internal quantum efficiency of 100 %. Thus, the excited-state nature of stable π-radicals as well as the control of their excited-state spin dynamics are emerging topics both in terms of fundamental science and related technological applications. In this minireview, we focus on the excited-state dynamics of both photostable non(weakly)-luminescent and luminescent π-radicals, which are opposites of each other. In particular, we cover the following topics: 1) effective generation of high-spin photoexcited states and control of the excited-state dynamics by using non-luminescent π-radicals, 2) unique excited-state dynamics of luminescent π-radicals and radical excimers, and 3) applications utilizing excited-state dynamics of π-radicals.  相似文献   
8.
Abstract

Realistic stochastic modeling is increasingly requiring the use of bounded noises. In this work, properties and relationships of commonly employed bounded stochastic processes are investigated within a solid mathematical ground. Four families are object of investigation: the Sine-Wiener (SW), the Doering–Cai–Lin (DCL), the Tsallis–Stariolo–Borland (TSB), and the Kessler–Sørensen (KS) families. We address mathematical questions on existence and uniqueness of the processes defined through Stochastic Differential Equations, which often conceal non-obvious behavior, and we explore the behavior of the solutions near the boundaries of the state space. The expression of the time-dependent probability density of the Sine-Wiener noise is provided in closed form, and a close connection with the Doering–Cai–Lin noise is shown. Further relationships among the different families are explored, pathwise and in distribution. Finally, we illustrate an analogy between the Kessler–Sørensen family and Bessel processes, which allows to relate the respective local times at the boundaries.  相似文献   
9.
Infection of hosts by morbilliviruses is facilitated by the interaction between viral hemagglutinin (H-protein) and the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). Recently, the functional importance of the n-terminal region of human SLAM as a measles virus receptor was demonstrated. However, the functional roles of this region in the infection process by other morbilliviruses and host range determination remain unknown, partly because this region is highly flexible, which has hampered accurate structure determination of this region by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we analyzed the interaction between the H-protein from canine distemper virus (CDV-H) and SLAMs by a computational chemistry approach. Molecular dynamics simulations and fragment molecular orbital analysis demonstrated that the unique His28 in the N-terminal region of SLAM from Macaca is a key determinant that enables the formation of a stable interaction with CDV-H, providing a basis for CDV infection in Macaca. The computational chemistry approach presented should enable the determination of molecular interactions involving regions of proteins that are difficult to predict from crystal structures because of their high flexibility.  相似文献   
10.
Multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) belongs to the ABC transporter superfamily and promotes the transport of xenobiotics including drugs. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in the ABCC4 gene can promote changes in the structure and function of MRP4. In this work, the interaction of certain endogen substrates, drug substrates, and inhibitors with wild type-MRP4 (WT-MRP4) and its variants G187W and Y556C were studied to determine differences in the intermolecular interactions and affinity related to SNPs using protein threading modeling, molecular docking, all-atom, coarse grained, and umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations (AA-MDS and CG-MDS, respectively). The results showed that the three MRP4 structures had significantly different conformations at given sites, leading to differences in the docking scores (DS) and binding sites of three different groups of molecules. Folic acid (FA) had the highest variation in DS on G187W concerning WT-MRP4. WT-MRP4, G187W, Y556C, and FA had different conformations through 25 ns AA-MD. Umbrella sampling simulations indicated that the Y556C-FA complex was the most stable one with or without ATP. In Y556C, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and ceefourin-1 binding sites are located out of the entrance of the inner cavity, which suggests that both cAMP and ceefourin-1 may not be transported. The binding site for cAMP and ceefourin-1 is quite similar and the affinity (binding energy) of ceefourin-1 to WT-MRP4, G187W, and Y556C is greater than the affinity of cAMP, which may suggest that ceefourin-1 works as a competitive inhibitor. In conclusion, the nsSNPs G187W and Y556C lead to changes in protein conformation, which modifies the ligand binding site, DS, and binding energy.  相似文献   
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