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1.
Nitrene transfer reactions have emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile ways to insert an amine function to various kinds of hydrocarbon substrates. However, the mechanisms of nitrene generation have not been studied in depth albeit their formation is taken for granted in most cases without definitive evidence of their occurrence. In the present work, we compare the generation of tosylimido iron species and NTs transfer from FeII and FeIII precursors where the metal is embedded in a tetracarbene macrocycle. Catalytic nitrene transfer to reference substrates (thioanisole, styrene, ethylbenzene and cyclohexane) revealed that the same active species was at play, irrespective of the ferrous versus ferric nature of the precursor. Through combination of spectroscopic (UV-visible, Mössbauer), ESI-MS and DFT studies, an FeIV tosylimido species was identified as the catalytically active species and was characterized spectroscopically and computationally. Whereas its formation from the FeII precursor was expected by a two-electron oxidative addition, its formation from an FeIII precursor was unprecedented. Thanks to a combination of spectroscopic (UV-visible, EPR, Hyscore and Mössbauer), ESI-MS and DFT studies, we found that, when starting from the FeIII precursor, an FeIII tosyliodinane adduct was formed and decomposed into an FeV tosylimido species which generated the catalytically active FeIV tosylimide through a comproportionation process with the FeIII precursor.  相似文献   
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In this paper, a two-dimensional finite volume unstructured mesh method (FVUM) based on a triangular background interpolation mesh is developed for analysing the evolution of the saltwater intrusion into single and multiple coastal aquifer systems. The model formulation consists of a ground-water flow equation and a salt transport equation. These coupled and non-linear partial differential equations are transformed by FVUM into a system of differential/algebraic equations, which is solved using backward differentiation formulas of order one through five. Simulation results are compared with previously published solutions where good agreement is observed.  相似文献   
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Typical behaviour of the solution of a linear system of equations obtained iteratively by Krylov methods can be characterized by three stages. Initially the residual diminishes steadily; this is followed by stagnation and finally rapid convergence near the algebraic grade. This study examines this behaviour in terms of the concepts of approximately invariant subspace and what we have called the analytic grade of a Krylov sequence. It is shown how the small Ritz values play a vital role in the convergence and how this knowledge helps in the construction of an effective preconditioner. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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In this paper we study a widely used zero equation model of turbulence. The governing equations are derived by applying to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations the Reynolds time averaging procedure. We achieve closure by employing the eddy viscosity concept. Using the Implicit Function Theorem we obtain an existence and uniquencess result. We also discuss the existence of nonsingular solutions. Finally, we present an algorithm for solving the modeled equations.  相似文献   
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The Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity of a module gives a rough measure of its complexity. We bound the regularity of a module given a system of approximating modules whose regularities are known. Such approximations can arise naturally for modules constructed by inductive combinatorial means. We apply these methods to bound the regularity of ideals constructed as combinations of linear ideals and the module of derivations of a hyperplane arrangement as well as to give degree bounds for invariants of finite groups.  相似文献   
10.
In this paper a simplified network model for mechano-sorptive creep is presented, which is a further development of an earlier paper [Strömbro, J., Gudmundson, P., 2008. Mechano-sorptive creep under compressive loading – a micromechanical model. International Journal of Solids and Structures 45 (9), 2420–2450.]. It is assumed that the anisotropic hygroexpansion of the fibres leads to large stresses at the fibre bonds when the moisture content changes. The resulting stress state will accelerate creep if the fibre material obeys a constitutive law that is non-linear. Fibre kinks are included in order to capture experimental observations of larger mechano-sorptive effects in compression than in tension. Moisture dependent material parameters and anisotropy in the fibre distribution have been introduced. Theoretical predictions based on the model are compared to experimental results for an anisotropic paper both under tensile and compressive loading at varying moisture content and it is found that the important features in the experiments are captured by the model. Different kinds of drying conditions have also been examined.  相似文献   
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