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1.
The minimum k-enclosing ball problem seeks the ball with smallest radius that contains at least k of m given points. This problem is NP-hard. We present a branch-and-bound algorithm on the tree of the subsets of k points to solve this problem. Our method is able to solve the problem exactly in a short amount of time for small and medium sized datasets.  相似文献   
2.
近年来,设计和合成高性能非富勒烯受体(NFAs)材料已经成为太阳能电池研究领域的前沿课题。基于DA'D型稠环结构的NFAs由于具有吸光系数高、能级和带隙可调、结构易于修饰、分子可高效合成、光电学性能优异等优点而受到了越来越广泛的关注。在短短7年的时间里,能量转换效率(PCE)从3%~4%提高到18%。2019年初邹应萍等报道了一个优秀的受体分子Y6,与PM6共混制备单结电池,获得了15.7%的能量转换效率。Y6类受体材料的中心给电子单元为DA'D型稠环结构,缺电子单元(A')通过氮原子与两个给电子单元(D)并联形成稠环结构,这有助于降低前线分子轨道能级并增强吸收,同时与氮相连的两个烷基链和位于噻吩并噻吩β位的两个侧链则有助于提高溶解度及调节结晶性。自Y6问世以来,人们对分子的结构剪裁进行了深入的研究,并报道了数十种新的结构。在这些新的受体中,DA'D部分的结构裁剪对提高器件效率和太阳能电池的性能起着至关重要的作用。本文对A'、D单元和侧链结构修饰的研究进展进行了综述。通过选择几组受体,对最近报道的分子进行分类,并将它们的光学、电化学、电学和光电性质与精确的结构修饰相关联,从而对结构-性能关系进行全面概述。  相似文献   
3.
陈云  张萍萍 《化学教育》2022,43(5):96-101
从高中化学原子、分子等抽象性的知识教学出发,以防晒霜的防晒效果实验探究为例,探讨了现代分析仪器在高中化学教学中的应用。通过利用现代分析仪器紫外可见分光光度计,结合紫外线变色球实验探究防晒霜的防晒效果,分析并认识防晒霜中化学防晒的机理。结果表明,防晒霜的厚度越大、SPF越高,防晒霜的防晒效果越好,并且防晒霜的防晒效果可以持续一段时间,但是不同类型的防晒产品存在一定差异。在化学教学中渗透现代分析仪器的应用,为学生进一步了解化学学科在改变学习方式、拓宽学科知识领域、推动自身全面与可持续发展方面打下坚实的基础。  相似文献   
4.
Jiao-Hong Huang 《中国物理 B》2022,31(4):47503-047503
Due to the hydrogen embrittlement effect, La(Fe,Si)13-based hydrides can only exist in powder form, which limits their practical application. In this work, ductile and thermally conductive Al metal was homogeneously mixed with La0.5Pr0.5Fe11.4Si1.6B0.2 using the ball milling method. Then hydrogenation and compactness shaping of the magnetocaloric composites were performed in one step via a sintering process under high hydrogen pressure. As the Al content reached 9 wt.%, the La0.5Pr0.5Fe11.4Si1.6B0.2Hy/Al composite showed the mechanical behavior of a ductile material with a yield strength of ~44 MPa and an ultimate strength of 269 MPa accompanied by a pronounced improvement in thermal conductivity. Due to the ease of formation of Fe-Al-Si phases and the several micron and submicron sizes of the composite particles caused by ball milling process, the magnetic entropy change of the composites was substantially reduced to ~1.2 J/kg· K-1.5 J/kg· K at 0 T-1.5 T.  相似文献   
5.
We study the moderate deviation probability of the position of the rightmost particle in a branching Brownian motion and obtain its moderate deviation function. Firstly, Chauvin and Rouault studied the large deviation probability for the rightmost position in a branching Brownian motion. Recently, Derrida and Shiconsidered lower deviation for the same model. By contrast, Our main result is more extensive.  相似文献   
6.
利用1981-2014年华南台风灾情数据,选取受灾人口、农作物受灾面积和直接经济损失,应用Copula函数理论,计算灾情重现期,分析台风灾害的灾情.首先,借助Clayton Copula函数构造三变量的联合分布,计算单变量重现期、联合重现期及同现重现期,并求出该重现期下的设计值.计算结果表明联合重现期的设计值要优于单变量重现期和同现重现期的设计值.因此,选取联合重现期的设计值作为防灾标准的最优参考,并将联合重现期记为灾情重现期.然后,计算2015-2017年登陆华南台风灾害的灾情重现期,并对台风灾害的灾情进行分析.发现台风灾情重现期越长的台风造成的灾情越严重.最后,利用灾情重现期与致灾重现期对台风灾害的发生频率作综合性分析,可以为台风灾害的风险评估提供一种新思路.  相似文献   
7.
Organic solar cell of silol dithiophene based D2-A-D1-A-D2/PC71BM (D: donor part; A: acceptor part; 1 and 2 denote different units) possesses promising power conversion efficiency. Researchers have studied D2-A-D1-A-D2 molecules carefully, including the effects of the different number of terminal thiophenes, the different central moiety (D1), and the length of the alkyl chain. However, there are few investigations, especially theoretical studies, on the influences of different A (acceptor) units on the properties of D2-A-D1-A-D2 molecule. In the present work, we have designed and modeled five new D2-A-D1-A-D2 (D2 = bithiophene and D1 = silol dithiophene) donors by changing A units (A = diketopyrrolopyrrole, naphtho[1,2-c:5,6-c′]bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole, 5-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole, benzobisthiadiazole, and thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole). We have applied density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT to predict their ground-state electronic structures and the UV–vis spectra, and the open circuit voltages (Vocs) of organic solar cells of D2-A-D1-A-D2/PC71BM. Based on the calculated results, we find that bithiophene thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole siloldithiophene (BTTS) (D2 = bithiophene, A = thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole, D1 = silol dithiophene) possesses the highest lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (−2.60 eV) and the lowest highest occupied molecular orbital (−5.33 eV) energies, and the strongest absorption in the visible region. Besides, the solar cell of BTTS/PC71BM has the highest Voc of 1.02 V. These results indicate that it may be a promising donor. In contrast, bithiophene benzobisthiadiazole siloldithiophene (BBBS) (A = benzobisthiadiazole) has low absorption strength in the visible region, which indicates that it may not be a suitable donor material.  相似文献   
8.
基于时变Copula模型,获得预测方差,确定单个基金收益率序列的边缘分布.利用常见的静态Copula和时变Copula模型对基金收益率序列间两两相依关系进行建模并进行对比分析.应用研究表明,基于MCMC方法的时变Copula模型能更有效地度量基金收益率序列的风险.  相似文献   
9.
A combined experimental and computational approach was used to distinguish between different polymorphs of the pharmaceutical drug aspirin. This method involves the use of ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS), a density functional theory (DFT)-based crystal structure prediction method for the high-accuracy prediction of polymorphic structures, with DFT calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters and solid-state NMR experiments at natural abundance. AIRSS was used to predict the crystal structures of form-I and form-II of aspirin. The root-mean-square deviation between experimental and calculated 1H chemical shifts was used to identify form-I as the polymorph present in the experimental sample, the selection being successful despite the large similarities between the molecular environments in the crystals of the two polymorphs.  相似文献   
10.
Two novel inclusion compounds of 4,4′‐sulfonyldibenzoate anions and tetrapropylammonium cations with different ancillary molecules of water and boric acid, namely bis(tetrapropylammonium) 4,4′‐sulfonyldibenzoate dihydrate, 2C12H28N+·C14H8O6S2−·H2O ( 1 ), and bis(tetrapropylammonium) 4,4′‐sulfonyldibenzoate bis(boric acid), 2C12H28N+·C14H8O6S2−·2H3BO3 ( 2 ), were prepared and characterized using single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction. In the two salts, the host 4,4′‐sulfonyldibenzoic acid molecules, which are converted to the corresponding anions under basic conditions, can be regarded as proton acceptors which link different proton donors of the ancillary molecules of water or boric acid. In this way, an isolated hydrogen‐bonded tetramer is constructed in salt 1 and a ribbon is constructed in salt 2 . The tetramers and ribbons are then packed in a repeating manner to generate various host frameworks, and the tetrapropylammonium guest counter‐ions are contained in the cavities of the host lattices to give the final stable crystal structures. In these two salts, although the host anion and guest cation are the same, the difference in the ancillary small molecules results in different structures, indicating the significance of ancillary molecules in the formation of crystal structures.  相似文献   
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