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**排序方式：**共有10000条查询结果，搜索用时 15 毫秒

1.

Michael R. Caputo 《Natural Resource Modeling》1989,3(2):241-259

This paper analyzes the extent to which standard dynamic renewable resource models possess refutable implications. Both the steady state comparative static and local comparative dynamic properties of the standard model are studied. A unified framework is developed which enables one to analyze the qualitative properties of any standard renewable resource model. This is achieved by explicitly linking the local stability, steady state comparative static, and local comparative dynamic properties of the model. 相似文献

2.

UCINSKI DARIUSZ; JAI ABDELHAQ EL 《IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information》1997,14(2):153-174

In this paper, the concept of weak spreadability is introduced.It constitutes an extension of the idea developed by El Jai& Kassara. In the case of linear distributed systems weconsider quadratic control techniques with a conveniently penalizedcriterion which makes the system weakly spreadable. The approachis outlined for a convection—diffusion system, and theresults of a numerical study are also included to illustratethe main features of the considered problem. 相似文献

3.

ABSTRACT. Predator‐prey relationships account for an important part of all interactions betweenspecies. In this paper we provide a microfoundation for such predator‐prey relations in afood chain. Basic entities of our analysis are representative organisms of species modeled similar to economic households. With prices as indicators of scarcity, organisms are assumed to behave as if they maximize their net biomass subject to constraints which express the organisms' risk of being preyed upon during predation. Like consumers, organisms face a ‘budget constraint’ requiring their expenditure on prey biomass not to exceed their revenue from supplying own biomass. Short‐run ecosystem equilibria are defined and derived. The net biomass acquired by the representative organism in the short term determines the positive or negative population growth. Moving short‐run equilibria constitute the dynamics of the predator‐prey relations that are characterized in numerical analysis. The population dynamics derived here turn out to differ significantly from those assumed in the standard Lotka‐Volterra model. 相似文献

4.

The sub-millisecond protonation dynamics of the chromophore in S65T mutant form of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was
tracked after a rapid pH jump following laser-induced proton release from the caged photolabile compound

*o*-nitrobenzaldehyde. Following a jump in pH from 8 to 5 (which is achieved within 2 μs), the fluorescence of S65T GFP decreased as a single exponential with a time constant of ∼90 μs. This decay is interpreted as the conversion of the deprotonated fluorescent GFP chromophore to a protonated non-fluorescent species. The protonation kinetics showed dependence on the bulk viscosity of the solvent, and therefore implicates bulk solvent-controlled protein dynamics in the protonation process. The protonation is proposed to be a sequential process involving two steps: (a) proton transfer from solvent to the chromophore, and (b) internal structural rearrangements to stabilize a protonated chromophore. The possible implications of these observations to protein dynamics in general is discussed 相似文献5.

For the NO molecule, modelled as a Morse oscillator, time-dependent (TD) nuclear Schr?dinger equation has been numerically
solved for the multiphoton vibrational dynamics of the molecule under a far-infrared laser of wavelength 10503 nm, and four
different intensities,

*I*= 1 × 10^{8}, 1 × 10^{13}, 5 × 10^{16}, and 5 × 10^{18}W cm^{−2}respectively. Starting from the vibrational ground state at zero time, various TD quantities such as the norm, dissociation probability, potential energy curve and dipole moment are examined. Rich high-harmonics generation (HHG) spectra and above-threshold dissociation (ATD) spectra, due to the multiphoton interaction of vibrational motions with the laser field, and consequent elevation to the vibrational continuum, have been obtained and analysed. Dedicated to Professor C N R Rao on his 70th birthday An erratum to this article is available at . 相似文献6.

Scott T. Knauert Jack F. Douglas Francis W. Starr 《Journal of Polymer Science.Polymer Physics》2007,45(14):1882-1897

Nanoparticles can influence the properties of polymer materials by a variety of mechanisms. With fullerene, carbon nanotube, and clay or graphene sheet nanocomposites in mind, we investigate how particle shape influences the melt shear viscosity η and the tensile strength τ, which we determine via molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations of compact (icosahedral), tube or rod‐like, and sheet‐like model nanoparticles, all at a volume fraction ? ≈ 0.05, indicate an order of magnitude increase in the viscosity η relative to the pure melt. This finding evidently can not be explained by continuum hydrodynamics and we provide evidence that the η increase in our model nanocomposites has its origin in chain bridging between the nanoparticles. We find that this increase is the largest for the rod‐like nanoparticles and least for the sheet‐like nanoparticles. Curiously, the enhancements of η and τ exhibit

*opposite trends*with increasing chain length*N*and with particle shape anisotropy. Evidently, the concept of bridging chains alone cannot account for the increase in τ and we suggest that the deformability or flexibility of the sheet nanoparticles contributes to nanocomposite strength and toughness by reducing the relative value of the Poisson ratio of the composite. The molecular dynamics simulations in the present work focus on the reference case where the modification of the melt structure associated with glass‐formation and entanglement interactions should not be an issue. Since many applications require good particle dispersion, we also focus on the case where the polymer‐particle interactions favor nanoparticle dispersion. Our simulations point to a substantial contribution of nanoparticle shape to both mechanical and processing properties of polymer nanocomposites. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 45: 1882–1897, 2007 相似文献7.

Matthias Heuchel Martin Bhning Ole Hlck Martin R. Siegert Dieter Hofmann 《Journal of Polymer Science.Polymer Physics》2006,44(13):1874-1897

Atomistic packing models have been created, which help to better understand the experimentally observed swelling behavior of glassy polysulfone and poly (ether sulfone), under CO

_{2}gas pressures up to 50 bar at 308 K. The experimental characterization includes the measurement of the time‐dependent volume dilation of the polymer samples after a pressure step and the determination of the corresponding gas concentrations by gravimetric gas‐sorption measurements. The models obtained by force‐field‐based molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics methods allow a detailed atomistic analysis of representative swelling states of polymer/gas systems, with respect to the dilation of the matrix. Also, changes of free volume distribution and backbone mobility are accessible. The behavior of gas molecules in unswollen and swollen polymer matrices is characterized in terms of sorption, diffusion, and plasticization. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 44: 1874–1897, 2006 相似文献8.

Unsteady flow dynamics in doubly constricted 3D vessels have been investigated under pulsatile flow conditions for a full cycle of period T. The coupled non‐linear partial differential equations governing the mass and momentum of a viscous incompressible fluid has been numerically analyzed by a time accurate Finite Volume Scheme in an implicit Euler time marching setting. Roe's flux difference splitting of non‐linear terms and the pseudo‐compressibility technique employed in the current numerical scheme makes it robust both in space and time. Computational experiments are carried out to assess the influence of Reynolds' number and the spacing between two mild constrictions on the pressure drop across the constrictions. The study reveals that the pressure drop across a series of mild constrictions can get physiologically critical and is also found to be sensitive both to the spacing between the constrictions and the oscillatory nature of the inflow profile. The flow separation zone on the downstream constriction is seen to detach from the diverging wall of the constriction leading to vortex shedding with 3D features earlier than that on the wall in the spacing between the two constrictions. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

9.

This paper reports a combined experimental and numerical investigation of three-dimensional steady turbulent flows in inlet manifolds of square cross-section. Predictions and measurements of the flows were carried out using computational fluid dynamics and laser Doppler anemometry techniques respectively. The flow structure was characterized in detail and the effects of flow split ratio and inlet flow rate were studied. These were found to cause significant variations in the size and shape of recirculation regions in the branches, and in the turbulence levels. It was then found that there is a significant difference between the flow rates through different branches. The performance of the code was assessed through a comparison between predictions and measurements. The comparison demonstrates that all important features of the flow are well represented by the predictions. 相似文献

10.

Daniel T. Valentine 《国际流体数值方法杂志》1995,21(2):155-180

The disarrangement of a perturbed lattice of vortices was studied numerically. The basic state is an exponentially decaying, exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Square arrays of vortices with even numbers of vortex cells along each side were perturbed and their evolution was investigated. Whether the energy in the perturbation grows somewhat before it decays or decays monotonically depends on the initial strength of the vortices of the basic state, the extent of lateral confinement and the structure of the perturbation. The critical condition for temporally local instability, i.e. the critical amplitude of the basic state that must be exceeded to allow energy transfer from the basic state to the perturbation, is discussed. In the strongly confined case of a square lattice of four vortices the appearance of enchancement of global rotation is the result of energy transfer from the basic state to a temporally local unstable mode. Energy is transferred from the basic state to larger-scaled structures (inverse cascade) only if the scales of the larger structures are inherently contained in the initial structure of the perturbation. The initial structure of the double array of vortices is

*not*maintained except for a very special form of perturbation. The facts that large scales decay more slowly than small scales and that, when non-linearities are sufficiently strong, energy is transferred from one scale to another explain the differences in the disarrangement process for different initial strengths of the vortices of the basic state. The stronger vortices, i.e. the vortices perturbed in a manner that increases their strength, tend to dominate the weaker vortices. The pairing and subsequent merging (or capture) of vortices of like sense into larger-scale vortices are described in terms of peaks in the evolution of the square root of the palinstrophy divided by the enstrophy. 相似文献