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1.
The mechanisms of CO2 coupling with the propargylic alcohol using alkali carbonates M2CO3 (M = Li, Na, K, Cs) have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The calculations reveal that the target product tetronic acid (TA) is yielded through two stages: (a) the formation of the α-alkylidene cyclic carbonate (αACC) intermediate via Cs2CO3-mediated carboxylative cyclization of the propargylic alcohol with CO2, and (b) the conversion of the αACC intermediate with Cs2CO3 to produce the cesium salt of the TA. Since the overall kinetic barriers for the two stages are comparable and affordable, the excellent chemoselectivity to the TA should be primarily originated from the high thermodynamic stability of the cesium salt of the TA. Moreover, relative to the TA, the possibility to yield the by-product acyclic carbonate can be excluded due to the both kinetics and thermodynamic inferiority. This result is different from the organic base-mediated reaction. Alternatively, our calculations predict that CsHCO3 together generated with the cesium salt of the TA might also be an available mediating reagent for the incorporation of CO2 with the propargylic alcohol. Compared to other alkali carbonates M2CO3 (M = Li, Na, K), the stronger basicity of Cs2CO3 and the lower ionic potential of cesium ion can raise the effective concentration of the αACC intermediate, and thus the conversion of the αACC intermediate into the cesium salt of the TA can be achieved with high yield.  相似文献   
2.
当前锂离子动力电池电化学模型存在模型复杂、建模难度大、计算效率低、老化评估效果差的问题,本文提出一种考虑电池衰退老化的机理模型(ADME).本文首先通过有限差分法对伪二维(P2D)电化学模型进行离散降阶处理,得到简化伪二维(SP2D)模型.在SP2D模型的基础上,基于阴阳两极发生的副反应导致的衰退老化现象,提出一种考虑电池衰退老化的机理模型.其次,使用多变量偏差补偿最小二乘法实现模型参数辨识.最后通过动力电池衰退老化性能循环实验,对比分析了恒流、脉冲工况下SP2D模型和ADME模型的终端电压输出.结果表明:ADME模型较为简单、计算效率和估算精度高,可以有效评估电池容量老化衰退,得到理想的锂离子动力电池外特性曲线.  相似文献   
3.
4.
The kinetics of the O3, OH and NO3 radical reactions with diazomethane were studied in smog chamber experiments employing long-path FTIR and PTR-ToF-MS detection. The rate coefficients were determined to be k CH2NN+O3?=?(3.2?±?0.4)?×?10?17 and k CH2NN+OH?=?(1.68?±?0.12)?×?10?10 cm3 molecule?1 s?1 at 295?±?3?K and 1013?±?30 hPa, whereas the CH2NN?+?NO3 reaction was too fast to be determined in the static smog chamber experiments. Formaldehyde was the sole product observed in all the reactions. The experimental results are supported by CCSD(T*)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ//M062X/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations showing the reactions to proceed exclusively via addition to the carbon atom. The atmospheric fate of diazomethane is discussed.  相似文献   
5.
DFT computations have been performed to investigate the mechanism of H2‐assisted chain transfer strategy to functionalize polypropylene via Zr‐catalyzed copolymerization of propylene and p‐methylstyrene (pMS). The study unveils the following: (i) propylene prefers 1,2‐insertion over 2,1‐insertion both kinetically and thermodynamically, explaining the observed 1,2‐insertion regioselectivity for propylene insertion. (ii) The 2,1‐inserion of pMS is kinetically less favorable but thermodynamically more favorable than 1,2‐insertion. The observation of 2,1‐insertion pMS at the end of polymer chain is due to thermodynamic control and that the barrier difference between the two insertion modes become smaller as the chain length becomes longer. (iii) The pMS insertion results in much higher barriers for subsequent either propylene or pMS insertion, which causes deactivation of the catalytic system. (iv) Small H2 can react with the deactivated [Zr]?pMS?PPn facilely, which displace functionalized pMS?PPn chain and regenerate [Zr]? H active catalyst to continue copolymerization. The effects of counterions are also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2015 , 53, 576–585  相似文献   
6.
《Comptes Rendus Chimie》2015,18(9):993-1000
The electrochemical oxidation of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (PAR) was investigated at a Pt electrode with the application of cyclic (CV) and differential pulse (DPV) voltammetry methods. An effect of scan rate, substrate concentration and pH on electrode reactions was determined. The parameters of substrate electro-oxidation, i.e. heterogeneous rate constant, charge transfer coefficient, and diffusion coefficient, were calculated. Our investigation's results prove the exchange of two electrons and one proton in the first step, followed by a chemical reaction. PAR electro-oxidation occurs according to an EC mechanism.  相似文献   
7.
Alkynes cycloaddition reactions are powerful tools for constructing cyclic molecules with optimal atom efficiency, but these reactions cannot proceed at ambient temperature without transition-metal catalysts. In this work, a heterobimetallic complex featuring an Nb–Fe triple bond, Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3, has been evaluated as the potential catalyst for acetylene cycloaddition, using density functional theory. The calculated results show that the singlet-state (i.e. ground-state) Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 can be applied to benzene synthesis, but is not suitable for cyclobutadiene. Benzene can be obtained easily at room temperature and is the unique product on the singlet potential surface. The irradiation of infrared-red light can drive the excitation of singlet Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 to its triplet state. Both benzene and cyclobutadiene can be formed on the triplet reaction potential surface due to their low energy barriers. Therefore, Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 is a potential high reactivity heterobimetallic catalyst for the cyclotrimerization of alkynes. In the reaction process, the catalytic active site of Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 moves from niobium to iron.  相似文献   
8.
采用密度泛函理论B3LYP方法,研究了锡苯和铅苯的[2+2],[4+2]及[4+4]二聚反应的微观机理和势能剖面,考察了Sn(Pb)原子上的2,4,6-三甲基苯基(Mes)取代基对反应势能剖面的影响.研究结果表明,所有反应均为协同过程,且大多数情况下,2个C—Sn(Pb)键同步形成.[2+2]和[4+2]反应在热力学和动力学上均比相应的[4+4]反应容易进行,而[4+2]反应在动力学上比相应的[2+2]反应有利.Sn(Pb)原子上的Mes取代基在热力学和动力学上均不利于反应的进行.铅苯的动力学稳定性与锡苯相当,但其热力学稳定性高于锡苯.  相似文献   
9.
以焦炉上升管内壁结焦炭层块为研究对象,采用X射线荧光光谱仪(XRF)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)、傅里叶红外光谱仪(FTIR)和激光共聚焦拉曼光谱仪(Raman)对结焦炭层的元素组成,以及各结焦炭层的矿物组成、组成结构和分子结构进行测试。分析从结焦炭层块外表面向内表面过渡的各结焦炭层的差异性,揭示焦炉上升管内壁结焦机理。结果表明焦炉上升管内粉尘中Fe,S和Cr极易催化荒煤气中蒽、萘等稠环芳烃化合物成炭,在焦炉上升管内壁形成炭颗粒沉积,为焦油凝结挂壁提供载体,在荒煤气温度降至结焦温度时易结焦积碳。结焦炭层均含有芳香层结构,随着结焦炭层从外表面向内表面过渡,各结焦炭层的面层间距(d002)逐渐降低、层片直径(La)先降低后增加、层片堆砌高度(Lc)和芳香层数(N)先稳定后增加。结焦炭层石墨化过程是由结焦炭层内表面向外表面进行,主要包括其片层外缘的羧基和部分C-O结构的降解剥离,从而形成高度规整的共轭结构。结焦炭层块中C元素是以结晶碳与无定型碳的混合物形式存在。以上研究为解决焦炉上升管内壁结焦及腐蚀问题,提高换热器换热效率,有效回收焦炉荒煤气显热,降低焦化企业能耗提供实验基础和理论依据。  相似文献   
10.
We have used quantum mechanical method to study the transition states(TSs) of uridine phosphorolysis reaction. Comparing the four different reaction pathways and the five transition states obtained, we conclude that enzymatic uridine phosphorolysis takes place mainly according to acid-catalyzed SN2 mechanism. The proposed reaction pathway is consistent with many experimental results.  相似文献   
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