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1.
The artificially accurate design of nonmetal electrocatalysts’ active site has been a huge challenge because no pure active species with the specific structure could be strictly controlled by traditional synthetic methods. Species with a multiconfiguration in the catalyst hinder identification of the active site and the subsequent comprehension of the reaction mechanism. We have developed a novel electro-assisted molecular assembly strategy to obtain a pure pentagon ring on perfect graphene avoiding other reconstructed structures. More importantly, the active atom was confirmed by the subtle passivation process as the topmost carbon atom. Recognition of the carbon-defect electrocatalysis reaction mechanism was first downsized to the single-atom scale from the experimental perspective. It is expected that this innovative electro-assisted molecular assembly strategy could be extensively applied in the active structure-controlled synthesis of nonmetal electrocatalysts and verification of the exact active atom.  相似文献   
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科学评价大学生科研创新能力对我国科研水平的提高具有重要意义.采用机器学习模型来预测大学生科研能力可以起到良好的效果,提出一种GAXGBoost模型来实现对大学生的科研能力预测.此模型是以Xgboost算法为基础,然后充分利用遗传算法的全局搜索能力自动搜索Xgboost最优超参数,避免了人为经验调参不准确的缺陷,最后采用精英选择策略以此确保每一轮都是最佳的进化结果.通过分析表明,所采用的GAXGBoost模型在大学生科研能力预测的结果中具有很高的精度,将此模型与Logistic Regression、Random Forest、SVM等模型进行对比,GAXGBoost模型的预测精度最高.  相似文献   
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Prediction of drag reduction effect caused by pulsating pipe flows is examined using machine learning. First, a large set of flow field data is obtained experimentally by measuring turbulent pipe flows with various pulsation patterns. Consequently, more than 7000 waveforms are applied, obtaining a maximum drag reduction rate and maximum energy saving rate of 38.6% and 31.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the pulsating flow effect can be characterized by the pulsation period and pressure gradient during acceleration and deceleration. Subsequently, two machine learning models are tested to predict the drag reduction rate. The results confirm that the machine learning model developed for predicting the time variation of the flow velocity and differential pressure with respect to the pump voltage can accurately predict the nonlinearity of pressure gradients. Therefore, using this model, the drag reduction effect can be estimated with high accuracy.  相似文献   
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《Physics letters. A》2019,383(23):2784-2788
By modifying the conventional one-electron hopping behavior, we study effects of an occupation-dependent hopping on the ground state of the half-filled one-dimensional pair-hopping model. At weak coupling, the use of bosonization and renormalization-group analysis techniques helps to derive the phase diagram. Such unusual hopping is shown to drive a spin-gap transition and to introduce a new region where the triplet superconducting instability dominates for positively small pair-hopping interaction.  相似文献   
7.
Luca Cimbaro 《哲学杂志》2019,99(12):1499-1514
A unified theory captures both brittle and ductile fracture. The fracture toughness is proportional to the applied stress squared and the length of the crack. For purely brittle solids, this criterion is equivalent to Griffith's theory. In other cases, it provides a theoretical basis for the Irwin-Orowan formula. For purely ductile solids, the theory makes direct contact with the Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden model. The toughness is highest in ductile materials because the shielding dislocations in the plastic zone provide additional resistance to crack growth. This resistance is the force opposing dislocation motion, and the Peach-Koehler force overcomes it. A dislocation-free zone separates the plastic zone from and the tip of the crack. The dislocation-free zone is finite because molecular forces responsible for the cohesion of the surfaces near the crack tip are not negligible. At the point of crack growth, the length of the dislocation-free zone is constant and the shielding dislocations advance in concert. As in Griffith's theory, the crack is in unstable equilibrium. The theory shows that a dimensionless variable controls the elastoplastic behaviour. A relationship for the size of the dislocation-free zone is derived in terms of the macroscopic and microscopic parameters that govern the fracture.  相似文献   
8.
研究桉树控制授粉后目标性状的基因作用方式是探索其基因重组规律的重要内容。常规的数量统计分析精度往往不高,而DNA分析的专业要求高,且费时费力。该研究利用近红外光谱(NIRs)研究不同基因型桉树杂交种、亲本及杂交种与亲本间近红外光谱信息的关系,探索NIRs用于桉树杂交种与其亲本判别的可行性和准确性。以控制授粉的桉树亲本及其杂交F1代材料为对象,每种基因型从各自田间试验分别选取10个单株,采集树冠中上部新鲜健康叶片。用手持式近红外仪Phazir Rx(1624)采集桉树杂交种与其亲本叶片的NIRs信息。每单株选10片完全生理成熟的健康叶片,避开叶脉扫描其正面光谱5次,以50条NIRs信息的均值代表单个叶片的NIRs信息,最终每个基因型获得10条NIRs信息。对原始NIRs采用二阶多项式S.G一阶导数预处理。预处理后的NIRs用于多元统计分析,首先对桉树杂交亲本和子代样本进行主成分分析(PCA),直观展示不同基因型的分类情况。然后运用簇类独立软模式(SIMCA)和偏最小二乘判别分析(PLS-DA)两种有监督的判别模式验证NIRs用于桉树杂交种与其亲本树种的分类判别效果。PCA结果显示,不同的亲本间、杂交种间及杂交种与亲本间样本的主因子得分可以清晰地将各基因型分开。SIMCA模式判别分析中,桉树杂交种样本到亲本PCA模型的样本距离显示,待判别样本能够形成单独的聚类,且能直观反映两者的遗传相似。PLS-DA判别结果显示,桉树杂交亲本的PLS模型能通过预测其杂交子代的响应变量将其与亲本准确分开。结果表明,桉树叶片的NIRs信息可以准确地反映桉树杂交子代遗传信息的传递规律,NIRs判别模型可以准确地将各种基因型予以区分。因此,NIRs信息不仅可用于桉树杂交种和纯种的定性判别,还可以分析桉树基因重组过程中加性遗传效应的大小,从而为桉树遗传基础分析及其育种改良研究提供理论支撑。  相似文献   
9.
《Current Applied Physics》2020,20(3):456-461
Carbon-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), especially in anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), have received a lot of attention because they exhibit excellent stability and are comparable to commercial Pt/C catalysts. Currently, to maximize the catalytic activity of carbon-based electrocatalysts, there are two major strategies: heteroatom doping or exposing active edge sites. However, the approach of increasing heteroatomic dopants of active edge sites has been rarely addressed. In this study, we present a simple strategy to prepare edge-enriched graphene catalysts with an increased ratio of heteroatomic dopants suitable for ORR of AEMFCs. The catalysts were prepared under harsh oxidation conditions, followed by a simple co-doping process with boron and nitrogen. The ORR activity of the catalysts was observed to be related to an increase of edge sites with heteroatomic dopants. We believe that the edge-enriched structure leads to accelerated electron transfer with enhanced oxygen adsorption.  相似文献   
10.
Cavitation erosion is caused in solids exposed to strong pressure waves developing in an adjacent fluid field. The knowledge of the transient distribution of stresses in the solid is important to understand the cause of damaging by comparisons with breaking points of the material. The modeling of this problem requires the coupling of the models for the fluid and the solid. For this purpose, we use a strategy based on the solution of coupled Riemann problems that has been originally developed for the coupling of 2 fluids. This concept is exemplified for the coupling of a linear elastic structure with an ideal gas. The coupling procedure relies on the solution of a nonlinear equation. Existence and uniqueness of the solution is proven. The coupling conditions are validated by means of quasi‐1D problems for which an explicit solution can be determined. For a more realistic scenario, a 2D application is considered where in a compressible single fluid, a hot gas bubble at low pressure collapses in a cold gas at high pressure near an adjacent structure.  相似文献   
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