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1.

Daniel L. Feldheim Del R. Lawson Charles R. Martin 《Journal of Polymer Science.Polymer Physics》1993,31(8):953-957

We report a strong dependence of the thermal stability of Nafion® perfluorosulfonate ionomer on the nature of the counterion associated with the fixed sulfonate site. These results were obtained using thermal gravimetric analysis on a series of alkali metal and alkyl ammonium cation-exchanged Nafion films. We have found that the temperature of decomposition of Nafion is inversely dependent on the size of the exchanged cation; i.e., Nafion films show improved thermal stability as the size of the counter cation decreases. We attribute this inverse relationship of thermal stability with counterion size to an initial decomposition reaction which is strongly influenced by the strength of the sulfonate-coun-terion interaction. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 相似文献

2.

Michael R. Caputo 《Natural Resource Modeling》1989,3(2):241-259

This paper analyzes the extent to which standard dynamic renewable resource models possess refutable implications. Both the steady state comparative static and local comparative dynamic properties of the standard model are studied. A unified framework is developed which enables one to analyze the qualitative properties of any standard renewable resource model. This is achieved by explicitly linking the local stability, steady state comparative static, and local comparative dynamic properties of the model. 相似文献

3.

Jeroen J. L. M. Cornelissen W. Sander Graswinckel Alan E. Rowan Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk Roeland J. M. Nolte 《Journal of polymer science. Part A, Polymer chemistry》2003,41(11):1725-1736

The conformational properties of polymers derived from isocyanodipeptides have been investigated with a combination of model calculations, X‐ray diffraction, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Depending on the configuration of the side chains, defined arrays of hydrogen bonds along the polymeric backbone are formed. This leads to a well‐defined conformation as, for example, expressed in the formation of lyotropic liquid‐crystalline phases and increased helical stability. Upon the disruption of the hydrogen bonds by a strong acid, a less well‐defined macromolecular conformation is observed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 1725–1736, 2003 相似文献

4.

The turbulent flow in a compound meandering channel with a rectangular cross section is one of the most complicated turbulent flows, because the flow behaviour is influenced by several kinds of forces, including centrifugal forces, pressure‐driven forces and shear stresses generated by momentum transfer between the main channel and the flood plain. Numerical analysis has been performed for the fully developed turbulent flow in a compound meandering open‐channel flow using an algebraic Reynolds stress model. The boundary‐fitted coordinate system is introduced as a method for coordinate transformation in order to set the boundary conditions along the complicated shape of the meandering open channel. The turbulence model consists of transport equations for turbulent energy and dissipation, in conjunction with an algebraic stress model based on the Reynolds stress transport equations. With reference to the pressure–strain term, we have made use of a modified pressure–strain term. The boundary condition of the fluctuating vertical velocity is set to zero not only for the free surface, but also for computational grid points next to the free surface, because experimental results have shown that the fluctuating vertical velocity approaches zero near the free surface. In order to examine the validity of the present numerical method and the turbulent model, the calculated results are compared with experimental data measured by laser Doppler anemometer. In addition, the compound meandering open channel is clarified somewhat based on the calculated results. As a result of the analysis, the present algebraic Reynolds stress model is shown to be able to reasonably predict the turbulent flow in a compound meandering open channel. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

5.

使用Monte Carlo模拟的方法得出了随机粗糙表面，在Kirchhoff近似的基础上，利用数值分析的方法分析了一维随机粗糙表面的散射特征，得出了一维随机粗糙表面散射分布曲线，我们还考虑了遮蔽效应的影响，并且讨论了Kirchhoff近似的有效性。 相似文献

6.

M. Ohsaki 《Archive of Applied Mechanics (Ingenieur Archiv)》2003,73(3-4):241-251

Summary Characteristics of optimal solutions under nonlinear buckling constraints are investigated by using a bar-spring model. It is demonstrated that optimization under buckling constraints of a symmetric system often leads to a structure with hill-top branching, where a limit point and bifurcation points coincide. A general formulation is derived for imperfection sensitivity of the critical load factor corresponding to a hill-top branching point. It is shown that the critical load is not imperfection-sensitive even for the case where an asymmetric bifurcation point exists at the limit point. 相似文献

7.

N. Fitier 《国际流体数值方法杂志》2003,42(12):1345-1361

There is a growing interest in developing numerical tools to investigate the onset of physical instabilities observed in experiments involving viscoelastic flows, which is a difficult and challenging task as the simulations are very sensitive to numerical instabilities. Following a recent linear stability analysis carried out in order to better understand qualitatively the origin of numerical instabilities occurring in the simulation of flows viscoelastic fluids, the present paper considers a possible extension for more complex flows. This promising method could be applied to track instabilities in complex (i.e. essentially non‐parallel) flows. In addition, results related to transient growth mechanism indicate that it might be responsible for the development of numerical instabilities in the simulation of viscoelastic fluids. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

8.

A parallel DSMC method based on a cell‐based data structure is developed for the efficient simulation of rarefied gas flows on PC‐clusters. Parallel computation is made by decomposing the computational domain into several subdomains. Dynamic load balancing between processors is achieved based on the number of simulation particles and the number of cells allocated in each subdomain. Adjustment of cell size is also made through mesh adaptation for the improvement of solution accuracy and the efficient usage of meshes. Applications were made for a two‐dimensional supersonic leading‐edge flow, the axi‐symmetric Rothe's nozzle, and the open hollow cylinder flare flow for validation. It was found that the present method is an efficient tool for the simulation of rarefied gas flows on PC‐based parallel machines. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

9.

Numerical simulation aspects, related to low Reynolds number free boundary viscous flows at micro and mesolevel during the resin impregnation stage of the liquid composite moulding process (LCM), are presented in this article. A free boundary program (FBP), developed by the authors, is used to track the movement of the resin front accurately by accounting for the surface tension effects at the boundary. Issues related to the global and local mass conservation (GMC and LMC) are identified and discussed. Unsuitable conditions for LMC and consequently GMC are uncovered at low capillary numbers, and hence a strategy for the numerical simulation of such flows is suggested. FBP encompasses a set of subroutines that are linked to modules in ANSYS. FBP can capture the void formation dynamics based on the analysis developed. We present resin impregnation dynamics in two dimensions. Extension to three dimensions is a subject for further research. Several examples are shown and efficiency of different stabilization techniques are compared. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

10.

Fang‐Jung Huang Tzong‐Liu Wang 《Journal of polymer science. Part A, Polymer chemistry》2004,42(2):290-302

Liquid‐crystalline, segmented polyurethanes with methoxy–biphenyl mesogens pendant on the chain extender were synthesized by the conventional prepolymer technique and esterification reaction. Two, side‐chain, liquid‐crystalline (SCLC) polyurethanes with mesogens having spacers of six and eight methylene units were prepared. The structures of the mesogenic units and SCLC polyurethanes were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and

^{1}H NMR. Polymer properties were also examined by solubility tests, water uptakes, and inherent viscosity measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated that the transition temperature of the isotropic to the liquid‐crystalline phase decreased with increasing spacer length. Wide‐angle X‐ray diffraction (WAXD) studies revealed the existence of liquid‐crystalline phases for both SCLC polyurethanes. Polarized optical microscopic investigations further confirmed the thermotropic liquid‐crystalline behaviors and nematic mesophases of both samples. Thermogravimetric analysis displayed better thermal stabilities for both SCLC polymers and indicated that the presence of mesogenic side chains may increase the thermal stability of segmented polyurethanes. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 290–302, 2004 相似文献